Parts of cell and functions pdf

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parts of cell and functions pdf

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Illustration of a plant cell with the organelles and components labeled.

Cell structure and function quiz answers

Organelles make up the subunits of a cell. There are numerous each with their own function. The plasma membrane is the organelle that encapsulates the contents of the cell. Apart from encapsulating cell contents, the plasma membrane also plays a vital role in regulating the movement of substances in and out of the cell. As such, it is actively involved in such both passive and active transportation to and from the cell. These processes also help maintain balance even when conditions outside the cell change.

The plasma membrane is made up of two layers of phospholipids phospholipids bilayer. Also see Cell Membrane. In eukaryotic cells, the nucleus is enclosed in a nuclear membrane. It is the organelle that controls the hereditary traits of an organism by directing such processes as protein synthesis and cell division among others.

For prokaryotes, the DNA lacks a nuclear membrane. The genetic material is therefore bound in the nucleotide region. Ribosomes are tiny organelles that contain RNA and specific proteins within the cytoplasm. Within the cell, ribosomes are directly involved in the manufacture of proteins by using their RNA and amino acids. This process involves decoding the information contained in the mRNA and using amino acids to produce the required proteins.

Mitochondria are some of the largest organelles within a cell. Compared to some of the other organelles, mitochondria contain DNA which makes them semiautonomous. Mitochondria also contain a double-membrane with the inner membrane folding to form cristae. Also known as the powerhouse, mitochondria play an important role in respiration where they generate ATP adenosine triphosphate from substrates in the presence of oxygen.

Using their DNA, mitochondria are able to encode for some of the components they require to perform their functions. A vacuole may be described as a space inside the cell that does not contain cytoplasm. It is surrounded by a membrane and filled with a fluid.

Vacuoles store various molecules including enzymes, waste products of the cell, water, and even food material depending on the type of cell. In cases were vacuoles contain waste products of the cell, they are also involved in the exportation of waste from the cell thus protecting the cell from toxicity. The cytoskeleton is made up of microtubules and microfilaments. By spreading throughout the cell in the cytoplasm , the cytoskeleton helps maintain the shape of the cell while also ensuring its elasticity.

Plastids are a type of organelle found in plant cells and algae. Like mitochondria, plastids are membrane-bound organelles that contain nucleoids. As such, they are also semi-autonomous organelles. The following are some functions of the different types of plastids:. Found in eukaryotic cells, Endoplasmic reticulum ER is the organelle that forms an interconnected network of flattened sacs cisternae.

Like some of the other organelles found in eukaryotes, ER is enclosed in a membrane. The ER is divided into two regions that vary in structure and function. These include:. As a result, it is more smooth in appearance as compared to the rough ER. It is involved in the synthesis of lipids e. Some of the other functions of the smooth ER include:.

It's involved in the manufacture of various proteins in the cell. On the other hand, the rough ER is involved in the production of antibodies, insulin as well as transportation of proteins into the smooth ER.

Centrioles are cylindrical organelles found in most eukaryotic cells. They contain tube-shaped molecules known as microtubules that help separate chromosomes and move them during cell division. A lysosome is commonly referred to as sacs of enzymes. They are membranous organelles that contain acidic enzymes hydrolase enzymes that serve to digest various macromolecules e.

Conditions inside lysosomes have been shown to be acidic. These conditions are maintained by the lysosome membrane thus providing favorable conditions for the enzymes to perform their functions. Golgi apparatus are found in eukaryotic and are highly folded into cisternae flattened sacs.

They are enclosed in a membrane that varies in thickness from different regions. In the cell, Golgi apparatus are actively involved in the manufacturing, storage as well as transportation of products from the ER. Other features of a cell include:. However, it's one of the most important components of plant cells. The cell wall surrounds the cell membrane and serves to strengthen and protect the cell.

For instance, in the cells of plant roots, the cell wall protects the cell as they grow deeper in the soil. The cell wall also serves as a filter that controls the movement of molecules in and out of the cell. Cytoplasm - is also not considered as an organelle in some books. However, it is an important component of the cell. Cell cytoplasm is composed of protoplasm in which all the other cell organelles are suspended.

Many of the cell processes protein synthesis, respiration etc take place in the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm also plays an important role in the movement of various materials around the cell. Also see the organelles: Glycosomes. See our page on Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes. Return to Cell Biology. Amazon and the Amazon logo are trademarks of Amazon. Scientific understanding changes over time. MicroscopeMaster is not liable for your results or any personal issues resulting from performing the experiment.

The MicroscopeMaster website is for educational purposes only. Images are used with permission as required. Mar 04, 21 PM. What are Glycoproteins? Read More. Mar 03, 21 AM. Stromal cells are a diverse type heterogeneous of potent cells commonly found in the bone marrow as well as from several other body parts like adipose tissue. Mar 02, 21 AM. Progenitor cells have been described as stem cell descendants with the ability to self-renew, proliferate, and give rise to more specialized cells.

Read more. Different Cell Organelles and their Functions Organelles make up the subunits of a cell. Plasma Membrane The plasma membrane is the organelle that encapsulates the contents of the cell. Comments Have your say about what you just read on MicroscopeMaster! Leave me a comment in the box below. Additional Info. Recent Articles.

Cell Structure

In this section the learners now expand their knowledge and learn the various cell structures and related functions. The roles of the organelles within the cells need to be introduced and relate structure and location of organelles to their function. Cells differ in size, shape and structure and therefore carry out specialised functions. Link this to tissues. The differences between plant and animal cells can be linked to Grade 9. The cell theory developed in by microbiologists Schleiden and Schwann describes the properties of cells.

What is a cell?

A eukaryotic cell has a true membrane-bound nucleus and has other membranous organelles that allow for compartmentalization of functions. Like a prokaryotic cell, a eukaryotic cell has a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes. However, unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have:.

Cell (biology)

Cell Structure and Functions-Notes

Ideas about cell structure have changed considerably over the years. Early biologists saw cells as simple membranous sacs containing fluid and a few floating particles. Today's biologists know that cells are infinitely more complex than this. There are many different types, sizes, and shapes of cells in the body. For descriptive purposes, the concept of a "generalized cell" is introduced. It includes features from all cell types.

Humans are made up of trillions of cells — the basic unit of life on earth. In this article, we explain some of the structures found in cells and describe a few of the many types of cell found in our bodies. Cells can be thought of as tiny packages that contain minute factories, warehouses, transport systems, and power plants. They function on their own, creating their own energy and self-replicating — the cell is the smallest unit of life that can replicate. However, cells also communicate with each other and connect to create a solid, well stuck-together animal.

A eukaryotic cell has a true membrane-bound nucleus and has other membranous organelles that allow for compartmentalization of functions. Like a prokaryotic cell, a eukaryotic cell has a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes. However, unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have:. They allow different functions to be compartmentalized in different areas of the cell. Typically, the nucleus is the most prominent organelle in a cell. The nuclear envelope is a double-membrane structure that constitutes the outermost portion of the nucleus. Both the inner and outer membranes of the nuclear envelope are phospholipid bilayers.

specific cell components/organelles for functional analysis = biochemical studies. Microscopes are a major tool in cytology = the study of cell structures. Cytology.