History of oil and gas industry pdf
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- Oil Dependence and U.S. Foreign Policy
- History, Exploration & Exploitation of Oil and Gas
- The history of the oil and gas industry from 347 AD to today
Oil Dependence and U.S. Foreign Policy
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. This edited volume discusses scientific and technological aspects of the history of the oil and gas industry in national and international contexts. The search for oil for industrial uses began in the nineteenth century, the first drills made in Azerbaijan and the United States. This intense search for a substance to become one of the most important energy sources was, many times, based on skill as well as luck, resulting in knowledge and the development of prospecting and exploration technologies. The demand for oil improved expertise in geological science, in areas such as micropaleontology, stratigraphy or sedimentology and informed different disciplines such as geophysics. These contributions made possible not only the discovery of new oil fields but also new applications and methods of exploration.
The United States' dependence on oil has long influenced its foreign policy. This timeline traces the story of U. The three major periods include the rise of oil as a commodity, beginning in ; the post-WWII age of geopolitical competition; and the current era of deregulation and diversification. The development of the Watt steam engine in the late eighteenth century spurs a wave of mechanization in Europe and the United States known as the Industrial Revolution. Coal is the main energy source driving the revolution in its beginning years.
Maikanti Kachalla Baru is an indigene of Bauchi State. He left this position in and was appointed as the Managing Director Hyson Nigeria Ltd and under his stewardship; Hyson was introduced into the domestic LPG business and grew rapidly raking in N24m in , Nm in and Nm in From to , Dr. K Baru was the Group General Manager, Greenfield Refinery Projects Division where he was tasked with ensuring the smooth execution of the feasibility study, design, construction and operation of new refineries in Nigeria. This covered the six joint ventures, sixty-two production-sharing contracts and other ad-hoc assignments. In his capacity, he handled the commercial and administrative aspects of the LNG Investment Businesses.
History, Exploration & Exploitation of Oil and Gas
Millions of years ago, algae and plants lived in shallow seas. After dying and sinking to the seafloor, the organic material mixed with other sediments and was buried. Over millions of years under high pressure and high temperature, the remains of these organisms transformed into what we know today as fossil fuels. Today, petroleum is found in vast underground reservoirs where ancient seas were located. Petroleum reservoirs can be found beneath land or the ocean floor. Crude oil is usually black or dark brown, but can also be yellowish, reddish, tan, or even greenish. Variations in color indicate the distinct chemical compositions of different supplies of crude oil.
This page provides an overview of the history of the oil and gas industry and includes relevant resources. The historical information is split into two time-periods: preth century, and from to the present. Petroleum has been used for waterproofing, construction, and lighting purposes spanning back to ancient civilizations. Some harvested the energy, like those in the Sichuan Valley to heat brine for salt production. The following materials link to fuller bibliographic information in the Library of Congress Online Catalog. Links to additional online content are provided when available. As techniques for extracting and refining fossil fuels improved, and as technology-driven demands increased, petroleum and natural gas became sought-after resources.
The history of the oil and gas industry from 347 AD to today
The petroleum industry , also known as the oil industry or the oil patch , includes the global processes of exploration , extraction , refining , transporting often by oil tankers and pipelines , and marketing of petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline petrol. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products , including pharmaceuticals , solvents , fertilizers , pesticides , synthetic fragrances, and plastics. The extreme monetary value of oil and its products has led to it being known as "black gold".
Nigeria is the largest oil and gas producer in Africa. Crude oil from the Niger delta basin comes in two types: light, and comparatively heavy — the lighter around 36 gravity and the heavier, 20—25 gravity. Both types are paraffinic and low in sulfur. The history of oil exploration in Nigeria dates back to when Nigerian Bitumen Corporation conducted exploratory work in the country; at the onset of World War I the firm's operations were stopped. Due to the lack of technological and financial resources of small oil companies, large oil companies took over the exploration of commercial oil in the country.
Хакеры подобны гиенам: это одна большая семья, радостно возвещающая о любой возможности поживиться. Лиланд Фонтейн решил, что с него довольно этого зрелища.
Late Modern History
Желая помочь, Беккер обратил их внимание на то, что все показанные ему иероглифы объединяет нечто общее - они одновременно являются и иероглифами кандзи. В комнате тут же стало тихо. Старший дешифровщик, нескладный тип по имени Морант, не выпускавший сигареты изо рта, недоверчиво уставился на Беккера. - То есть вы хотите сказать, что эти знаки имеют множественное значение. Беккер кивнул. Он объяснил, что кандзи - это система японского письма, основанная на видоизмененных китайских иероглифах.
- Стратмор пожал плечами. - Фонд электронных границ замучил неприкосновенностью частной жизни и переписки. Сьюзан хмыкнула. Этот фонд, всемирная коалиция пользователей компьютеров, развернул мощное движение в защиту гражданских свобод, прежде всего свободы слова в Интернете, разъясняя людям реальности и опасности жизни в электронном мире. Фонд постоянно выступал против того, что именовалось им оруэлловскими средствами подслушивания, имеющимися в распоряжении правительственных агентств, прежде всего АНБ. Этот фонд был для Стратмора постоянной головной болью.