Antioxidants and prevention of chronic disease pdf
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- Everything You Should Know About Oxidative Stress
- Antioxidants and prevention of chronic disease
Everything You Should Know About Oxidative Stress
Antioxidants are substances that may protect your cells against free radicals, which may play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases. Free radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down food or when you're exposed to tobacco smoke or radiation. Antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E and carotenoids, may help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Other naturally occurring antioxidants include flavonoids, tannins, phenols and lignans. Plant-based foods are the best sources. These include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, herbs and spices, and even cocoa. As a bonus, fruits, vegetables and whole grains high in antioxidants are also typically high in fiber, low in saturated fat and cholesterol, and good sources of vitamins and minerals.
Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit oxidation. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals , thereby leading to chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms. Antioxidants such as thiols or ascorbic acid vitamin C terminate these chain reactions. To balance the oxidative stress , plants and animals maintain complex systems of overlapping antioxidants, such as glutathione and enzymes e. The term "antioxidant" is mostly used for two entirely different groups of substances: industrial chemicals that are added to products to prevent oxidation, and naturally occurring compounds that are present in foods and tissue. The former, industrial antioxidants, have diverse uses: acting as preservatives in food and cosmetics, and being oxidation -inhibitors in rubber, synthetic plastics, and fuels.
Natural Products pp Cite as. Drugs and food from natural origin play an important role in public health-care system throughout the world. The word nutraceutical is a broad term describing foods, food ingredients, and dietary supplements that provide specific health or medical benefits, in addition to the basic nutritional value found in the food. A significant source for nutraceutical ingredients is bioactive phytochemicals like alkaloids, various terpenoids, and polyphenols anthocyanins, flavones, flavanols, isoflavones, stilbenes, ellagic acid, etc. A variety of these phytochemical compounds form an integral part of the nutraceutical market being antioxidants, and they help in the prevention of many degenerative and chronic diseases. In this review, classification of nutraceuticals, phytochemical classes as nutraceutical ingredients, antioxidants as nutraceuticals, and advantages and drawbacks along with nutraceutical market development are discussed.
Antioxidants and prevention of chronic disease
Oxidative stress plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Long term exposure to increased levels of pro-oxidant factors can cause structural defects at a mitochondrial DNA level, as well as functional alteration of several enzymes and cellular structures leading to aberrations in gene expression. The modern lifestyle associated with processed food, exposure to a wide range of chemicals and lack of exercise plays an important role in oxidative stress induction. However, the use of medicinal plants with antioxidant properties has been exploited for their ability to treat or prevent several human pathologies in which oxidative stress seems to be one of the causes. In this review we discuss the diseases in which oxidative stress is one of the triggers and the plant-derived antioxidant compounds with their mechanisms of antioxidant defenses that can help in the prevention of these diseases. Finally, both the beneficial and detrimental effects of antioxidant molecules that are used to reduce oxidative stress in several human conditions are discussed.
Often used as a marketing buzzword, learn about the role of antioxidants beyond the hype, and some of the research on health and disease prevention. Jump to: — What are antioxidants? Another constant threat comes from chemicals called free radicals. In very high levels, they are capable of damaging cells and genetic material. The body generates free radicals as the inevitable byproducts of turning food into energy. Free radicals are also formed after exercising or exposure to cigarette smoke, air pollution, and sunlight. Free radicals come in many shapes, sizes, and chemical configurations.
Oxidative stress is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in your body. Free radicals are oxygen-containing molecules with an uneven number of electrons. The uneven number allows them to easily react with other molecules. Free radicals can cause large chain chemical reactions in your body because they react so easily with other molecules. These reactions are called oxidation.
Susan T. Oxidation of lipid, nucleic acids or protein has been suggested to be involved in the etiology of several chronic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataract, age-related macular degeneration and aging in general. A large body of research has investigated the potential role of antioxidant nutrients in the prevention of these and other chronic diseases. The first part of the review emphasizes the utility of biological markers of exposure for these nutrients and the relationship to dietary intake data. The second part considers functional assays of oxidative stress status in humans including the strengths and limitations of various assays available for use in epidemiologic research.
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Biomarkers of exposure for antioxidant nutrients
Но телефон молчал. В подавленном настроении Сьюзан приняла ванну. Она окунулась в мыльную пену и попыталась забыть о Стоун-Мэнор и Смоки-Маунтинс. Куда его понесло? - думала. - Почему он не звонит. Вода из горячей постепенно превратилась в теплую и, наконец, холодную. Она уже собиралась вылезать, как вдруг ожил радиотелефон.
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