Constitutionalism and rule of law pdf
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- Rule of law and constitutionalism
- Constitutionalism: The Rule of Law and the Separation of Powers
- Rule of law
Rule of law , the mechanism, process, institution, practice, or norm that supports the equality of all citizens before the law , secures a nonarbitrary form of government , and more generally prevents the arbitrary use of power. Arbitrariness is typical of various forms of despotism, absolutism , authoritarianism , and totalitarianism.
Most generally, it is "a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law" Constitutionalism For genuine democracies, constitutions consist of overarching arrangements that determine the political, legal and social structures by which society is to be governed. Constitutional provisions are therefore considered to be paramount or fundamental law. Under these circumstances, if constitutional law itself is inadequate, the nature of democracy and rule of law within a country is affected. The structure of modern nations has been shaped with government being divided into executive, legislative and judicial bodies, with the commonly accepted notion that these bodies and their powers must be separated.
This process was strengthened in connection with European integration and the transfer of further competences onto the technocratic institutions of the EU; as a result, the demos became an abstract notion. Where, therefore, we can find a solution to way out of the crisis of the political, as described above, and therefore a way of overcoming the post-political situation? What political tools are at the disposal of the contemporary democratic community and what are its aims? Is the idea of common decision-making currently present in political life and if not, is it possible to create new procedures guaranteeing a broad civic participation in the public sphere? Is there a possibility for the community to consciously take part in defining what belongs to the common good and what is just, as well as to create a common world of sense and meaning?
Rule of law and constitutionalism
Constitutionalism and the "Rule of Law" : Constitutionalism is closely related to the Anglo-American political principle called the " rule of law. In the society, there is a single body of law applicable to all members of the society, a body of law applicable to those who govern as well as those who are governed. Government officers, like ordinary citizens, are subject to and must abide by the law; no one is above the law. Government officers, agencies, and institutions must, among other things, follow legally prescribed procedures and observe the legally guaranteed rights of individuals. The rule of law strongly implies that there are limits to political authority, that there are limits to the power of any governing elite to rule society, no matter how that elite acquired governing authority. All the organs and offices of government--the legislature, the executive, the administrative agencies, and even the courts of law--are required to observe and operate according to recognized and established rules of procedure.
Constitutionalism, like the rule of law with which it is here associated, is variously defined, and often connotes an entire body of ideals as well as rules—both.
Constitutionalism: The Rule of Law and the Separation of Powers
Constitutionalism is "a compound of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law ". Political organizations are constitutional to the extent that they "contain institutionalized mechanisms of power control for the protection of the interests and liberties of the citizenry , including those that may be in the minority ". Constitutionalism is descriptive of a complicated concept, deeply embedded in historical experience, which subjects the officials who exercise governmental powers to the limitations of a higher law. Constitutionalism proclaims the desirability of the rule of law as opposed to rule by the arbitrary judgment or mere fiat of public officials
This article examines the relation between the rule of law and constitutionalism. It attempts to provide a better understanding of the ambiguous construct of the rule of law which still remains in the public imagination as a formative part of political discourse. It analyses the role of the rule of law within the constitutional structure of a progressively more formalized European Union or within the more recently constituted post-communist states of Eastern Europe and considers the manner in which some contemporary jurisprudential and political thinkers have considered the rule of law.
The unit undertakes research in the area of Public Law broadly construed.
Rule of law
Стратмор - человек гордый и властный, наблюдение за ним следует организовать так, чтобы никоим образом не подорвать его авторитета. Из уважения к Стратмору Фонтейн решил заняться этим лично. Он распорядился установить жучок в личном компьютере Стратмора - чтобы контролировать его электронную почту, его внутриведомственную переписку, а также мозговые штурмы, которые тот время от времени предпринимал. Если Стратмор окажется на грани срыва, директор заметит первые симптомы. Но вместо признаков срыва Фонтейн обнаружил подготовительную работу над беспрецедентной разведывательной операцией, которую только можно было себе представить. Неудивительно, что Стратмор просиживает штаны на работе. Если он сумеет реализовать свой замысел, это стократно компенсирует провал Попрыгунчика.
Целых три часа. Так долго. Сьюзан нахмурилась, почувствовав себя слегка оскорбленной. Ее основная работа в последние три года заключалась в тонкой настройке самого секретного компьютера в мире: большая часть программ, обеспечивавших феноменальное быстродействие ТРАНСТЕКСТА, была ее творением. Шифр в миллион бит едва ли можно было назвать реалистичным сценарием.
Никакой Цифровой крепости не существует, - еле слышно пробормотала она под завывание сирены и, обессилев, склонилась над своим компьютером. Танкадо использовал наживку для дурачков… и АНБ ее проглотило. Сверху раздался душераздирающий крик Стратмора. ГЛАВА 86 Когда Сьюзан, едва переводя дыхание, появилась в дверях кабинета коммандера, тот сидел за своим столом, сгорбившись и низко опустив голову, и в свете монитора она увидела капельки пота у него на лбу. Сирена выла не преставая.
Key Words: constitutionalism, rule of law, natural law, primitive law, F. A. Hayek, Francis. Wormuth, Ronald Dworkin, Charles McIlwain. The bicentennial of the.