Geothermal energy systems exploration development and utilization pdf
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- Geothermal Energy Systems: Exploration, Development, and Utilization
- Geothermal Energy Factsheet
- Geothermal Energy
- Geothermal energy
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Authors: Stober , Ingrid, Bucher , Kurt. The internal heat of the planet Earth represents an inexhaustible reservoir of thermal energy.
Geothermal Energy Systems: Exploration, Development, and Utilization
Geothermal energy is the thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet and from radioactive decay of materials in currently uncertain  but possibly roughly equal  proportions.
Earth's internal heat is thermal energy generated from radioactive decay and continual heat loss from Earth's formation. With water from hot springs , geothermal energy has been used for bathing since Paleolithic times and for space heating since ancient Roman times, but it is now better known for electricity generation.
Worldwide, 13, megawatts MW of geothermal power was available in Geothermal power is cost-effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly,  but has historically been limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Recent technological advances have dramatically expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for applications such as home heating, opening a potential for widespread exploitation.
Geothermal wells release greenhouse gases trapped deep within the Earth, but these emissions are much lower per energy unit than those of fossil fuel. The Earth's geothermal resources are theoretically more than adequate to supply humanity's energy needs, but only a very small fraction may be profitably exploited.
Drilling and exploration for deep resources is very expensive. Forecasts for the future of geothermal power depend on assumptions about technology, energy prices, subsidies, plate boundary movement and interest rates. Pilot programs like EWEB's customer opt in Green Power Program  show that customers would be willing to pay a little more for a renewable energy source like geothermal. Hot springs have been used for bathing at least since Paleolithic times.
In the first century CE, Romans conquered Aquae Sulis , now Bath, Somerset , England, and used the hot springs there to feed public baths and underfloor heating. The admission fees for these baths probably represent the first commercial use of geothermal power.
The world's oldest geothermal district heating system in Chaudes-Aigues , France, has been operating since the 15th century. In , America's first district heating system in Boise, Idaho was powered directly by geothermal energy, and was copied in Klamath Falls, Oregon in The first known building in the world to utilize geothermal energy as its primary heat source was the Hot Lake Hotel in Union County, Oregon , whose construction was completed in Steam and hot water from geysers began heating homes in Iceland starting in In the 20th century, demand for electricity led to the consideration of geothermal power as a generating source.
Prince Piero Ginori Conti tested the first geothermal power generator on 4 July , at the same Larderello dry steam field where geothermal acid extraction began. It successfully lit four light bulbs. It was the world's only industrial producer of geothermal electricity until New Zealand built a plant in In , it produced some megawatts. Lord Kelvin invented the heat pump in , and Heinrich Zoelly had patented the idea of using it to draw heat from the ground in The earliest one was probably Robert C.
Webber's home-made 2. Donald Kroeker designed the first commercial geothermal heat pump to heat the Commonwealth Building Portland, Oregon and demonstrated it in The development of polybutylene pipe greatly augmented the heat pump's economic viability. In , Pacific Gas and Electric began operation of the first successful geothermal electric power plant in the United States at The Geysers in California.
The International Geothermal Association IGA has reported that 10, megawatts MW of geothermal power in 24 countries is online, which was expected to generate 67, GWh of electricity in IGA projects growth to 18, MW by , due to the projects presently under consideration, often in areas previously assumed to have little exploitable resources.
In , the United States led the world in geothermal electricity production with 3, MW of installed capacity from 77 power plants.
Indonesia's 28, MW are the largest geothermal reserves in the world, and it is predicted to overtake the US in the next decade. Geothermal electric plants were traditionally built exclusively on the edges of tectonic plates where high-temperature geothermal resources are available near the surface. The development of binary cycle power plants and improvements in drilling and extraction technology enable enhanced geothermal systems over a much greater geographical range.
Other demonstration projects are under construction in Australia , the United Kingdom , and the United States of America. The laws of thermodynamics limits the efficiency of heat engines in extracting useful energy. Exhaust heat is wasted, unless it can be used directly and locally, for example in greenhouses, timber mills, and district heating. System efficiency does not materially affect operational costs as it would for plants that use fuel, but it does affect return on the capital used to build the plant.
In order to produce more energy than the pumps consume, electricity generation requires relatively hot fields and specialized heat cycles.
Geothermal energy comes in either vapor-dominated or liquid-dominated forms. Larderello and The Geysers are vapor-dominated. Flash plants are the common way to generate electricity from these sources. Pumps are generally not required, powered instead when the water turns to steam. Most wells generate 2—10 MW of electricity. They are common in extensional terrains, where heating takes place via deep circulation along faults, such as in the Western US and Turkey.
Water passes through a heat exchanger in a Rankine cycle binary plant. The water vaporizes an organic working fluid that drives a turbine. These binary plants originated in the Soviet Union in the late s and predominate in new US plants. Binary plants have no emissions.
More than half went for space heating, and another third for heated pools. The remainder supported industrial and agricultural applications.
Heat for these purposes may also be extracted from co-generation at a geothermal electrical plant. Heating is cost-effective at many more sites than electricity generation. At natural hot springs or geysers , water can be piped directly into radiators. In the hot, dry ground, earth tubes or downhole heat exchangers can collect the heat.
However, even in areas where the ground is colder than room temperature, heat can often be extracted with a geothermal heat pump more cost-effectively and cleanly than by conventional furnaces.
They frequently combine functions, including air conditioning , seasonal thermal energy storage , solar energy collection, and electric heating. Heat pumps can be used for space heating essentially anywhere.
Geothermal energy can also used to supply cold district heating systems. Iceland is the world leader in direct applications. Some Enhanced geothermal systems EGS actively inject water into wells to be heated and pumped back out. The water is injected under high pressure to expand existing rock fissures to enable the water to freely flow in and out.
The technique was adapted from oil and gas extraction techniques. However, the geologic formations are deeper and no toxic chemicals are used, reducing the possibility of environmental damage. Drillers can employ directional drilling to expand the size of the reservoir. Geothermal power requires no fuel except for pumps , and is therefore immune to fuel cost fluctuations.
However, capital costs are significant. Drilling accounts for over half the costs, and exploration of deep resources entails significant risks. A typical well doublet extraction and injection wells in Nevada can support 4. As noted above, drilling cost is a major component of a geothermal power plant's budget and is one of the key barriers to wider development of geothermal resources.
A power plant must have production wells to bring the hot fluid steam or hot water to the surface and must also have injection wells to pump the liquid back into the reservoir after it has passed through the power plant.
Drilling geothermal wells is more expensive than drilling oil and gas wells of comparable depth for several reasons:. District heating systems may benefit from economies of scale if demand is geographically dense, as in cities and greenhouses, but otherwise, piping installation dominates capital costs. Some governments subsidize geothermal projects.
Geothermal power is highly scalable: from a rural village to an entire city,  making it a vital part of the renewable energy transition. Geothermal projects have several stages of development. Each phase has associated risks. At the early stages of reconnaissance and geophysical surveys, many projects are canceled, making that phase unsuitable for traditional lending.
Projects moving forward from the identification, exploration and exploratory drilling often trade equity for financing. The Earth's internal thermal energy flows to the surface by conduction at a rate of The conductive heat flux averages 0. These values are much higher near tectonic plate boundaries where the crust is thinner. They may be further augmented by fluid circulation, either through magma conduits , hot springs , hydrothermal circulation or a combination of these.
A geothermal heat pump can extract enough heat from shallow ground anywhere in the world to provide home heating, but industrial applications need the higher temperatures of deep resources.
The most demanding applications receive the greatest benefit from a high natural heat flux, ideally from using a hot spring. The next best option is to drill a well into a hot aquifer. If no adequate aquifer is available, an artificial one may be built by injecting water to hydraulically fracture the bedrock.
This last approach is called hot dry rock geothermal energy in Europe, or enhanced geothermal systems in North America. Much greater potential may be available from this approach than from conventional tapping of natural aquifers. Estimates of the potential for electricity generation from geothermal energy vary sixfold, from 0. Myanmar Engineering Society has identified at least 39 locations in Myanmar capable of geothermal power production and some of these hydrothermal reservoirs lie quite close to Yangon which is a significant underutilized resource.
This increase came from seven geothermal projects that began production in GEA also revised its estimate of installed capacity upward by MW, bringing current installed U. Geothermal power is considered to be renewable because any projected heat extraction is small compared to the Earth's heat content.
Human extraction taps a minute fraction of the natural outflow, often without accelerating it.
Geothermal Energy Factsheet
Ignore and show page. Format: Hardback, pages, height x width x depth: xx31 mm, weight: g, Illustrations,maps Pub. Book will arrive in about weeks. Please allow another 2 weeks for shipping outside Estonia. Larger Image. Description Table of Contents Author Biography Goodreads reviews The book encounters basic knowledge about geothermal technology for the utilization of geothermal resources.
Presenting boundary conditions for the economic and environmental utilization of geothermal technology, this is the first book to provide basic knowledge on the topic in such detail. The editor is the coordinator of the European Geothermic Research Initiative, while the authors are experts for the various geological situations in Europe with high temperature reservoirs in shallow and deep horizons. This requires interdisciplinary approaches and synergies seen in connection with a series of developing fields of research involving the editor's experimental expertise on processes in deep. The book describes the technology to make use of the Earth?
Geothermal energy is the thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet and from radioactive decay of materials in currently uncertain  but possibly roughly equal  proportions. Earth's internal heat is thermal energy generated from radioactive decay and continual heat loss from Earth's formation. With water from hot springs , geothermal energy has been used for bathing since Paleolithic times and for space heating since ancient Roman times, but it is now better known for electricity generation.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Furthermore, geothermal deposits of the types most useful at present—natural steam and hot water reservoirs—are rather localized, mainly in the western states and often far from potential users. Still, even the small currently useful part of the resource can be important in a world of rising fuel prices and declining supplies. If current research and development are successful in solving some rather intractable technical problems, and if the economics of energy become more favorable, the contribution of the now inaccessible parts of the resource could be a significant factor in reducing oil imports.
Besides the technical feasibility of the energy provision from enhanced geothermalsystem EGS , its deployment depends on the establishment on the energymarket. This means that the characteristics of national and internationalenergy markets need to be understood to improve EGSs classicationtherein. Energy markets are not driven only by demand and supply.
Some applications of geothermal energy use the earth's temperatures near the surface, while others require drilling miles into the earth. There are three main types of geothermal energy systems:. Direct use and district heating systems use hot water from springs or reservoirs located near the surface of the earth. Ancient Roman, Chinese, and Native American cultures used hot mineral springs for bathing, cooking, and heating. Today, many hot springs are still used for bathing, and many people believe the hot, mineral-rich waters have health benefits.
Presenting boundary conditions for the economic and environmental utilization of geothermal technology, this is the first book to provide basic knowledge on the.
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