Darwinian populations and natural selection pdf
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- The relativity of Darwinian populations and the ecology of endosymbiosis
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- Natural Selection
The relativity of Darwinian populations and the ecology of endosymbiosis
Interactions among microbial cells can generate new chemistries and functions, but exploitation requires establishment of communities that reliably recapitulate community-level phenotypes. Using mechanistic mathematical models, we show how simple manipulations to population structure can exogenously impose Darwinian-like properties on communities. Such scaffolding causes communities to participate directly in the process of evolution by natural selection and drives the evolution of cell-level interactions to the point where, despite underlying stochasticity, derived communities give rise to offspring communities that faithfully re-establish parental phenotype. The mechanism is akin to a developmental process developmental correction that arises from density-dependent interactions among cells. Knowledge of ecological factors affecting evolution of developmental correction has implications for understanding the evolutionary origin of major egalitarian transitions, symbioses, and for top-down engineering of microbial communities. That they might be treated as such, stemmed from recognition that the eukaryotic cell is a tight-knit community of two once free-living microbes Margulis, , but also from observations in nature of social insect colonies Wilson, , cellular slime molds Bonner, ; Buss, , and especially of phoretic insect communities Wilson and Knollenberg,
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For Darwin, natural selection is a drawn-out, complex process involving multiple interconnected causes. Natural selection requires variation in a population of organisms. That struggle is itself the result of checks on the geometric population increase that would occur in the absence of the checks. All populations, even slow-breeding ones such as those of elephants, will increase in size in the absence of limitations on growth that are imposed by nature. These checks take different forms in different populations.
Richard M. This ambitious book develops a novel framework for analysing putatively Darwinian populations and the extent to which their behaviours over time ought to match paradigm examples of evolution shaped by natural selection. This enables him to model changing populations in a variety of state spaces of varying degrees of specificity and to set forth critical evaluations of the extent to which a population or ensemble of populations fits conditions for Darwinian evolution and various ways of departing from Darwinian expectations. Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in.
PDF | On Dec 1, , Grant Ramsey and others published Darwinian Populations and Natural Selection | Find, read and cite all the research.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. Different characteristics tend to exist within any given population as a result of mutation , genetic recombination and other sources of genetic variation. The scientific theory of evolution by natural selection was conceived independently by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in the midth century and was set out in detail in Darwin's book On the Origin of Species. This is followed by three observable facts about living organisms: 1 traits vary among individuals with respect to their morphology, physiology and behaviour phenotypic variation , 2 different traits confer different rates of survival and reproduction differential fitness and 3 traits can be passed from generation to generation heritability of fitness. In the early 20th century, other competing ideas of evolution such as mutationism and orthogenesis were refuted as the modern synthesis reconciled Darwinian evolution with classical genetics , which established adaptive evolution as being caused by natural selection acting on Mendelian genetic variation.
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If there is a single discipline of science calling the basic concepts of biology into question, it is without doubt microbiology. Indeed, developments in microbiology have recently forced us to rethink such fundamental concepts as the organism, individual, and genome. In this paper I show how microorganisms are changing our understanding of natural aggregations and develop the concept of a Darwinian population to embrace these discoveries. I start by showing that it is hard to set the boundaries of a Darwinian population, and I suggest thinking of a Darwinian population as a relative property of a Darwinian individual. Then I argue, in contrast to the commonly held view, that Darwinian populations are multispecies units, and that in order to accept the multispecies account of Darwinian populations we have to separate fitness from natural selection.
Darwinian Populations and Natural Selection is a superb work, introducing an important analytical technique, and applying it to a range of difficult and contested issues within evolutionary theory. The core idea of the book is that of a Darwinian Population and, derivatively, a Darwinian individual.