Agriculture and animal husbandry pdf
File Name: agriculture and animal husbandry .zip
- Application of Information and Communication Technology to Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
- Animal Husbandry
- animal husbandry pdf
- Animal Husbandry
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In a world in constant population growth, food becomes one of the main concerns of societies and governments. In order to contribute to the research on the subject, we have created a collection of animal husbandry books in PDF format for our reading community. The growing demand for food and the limited resources of the planet make animal husbandry an indispensable activity that can lead to a viable solution to this problem. It is very propitious, then, that you and more people are interested in our selection of animal husbandry books in PDF format.
Application of Information and Communication Technology to Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
Lec 1: Prelusion-Significance of livestock and poultry in Indian economy-Livestock and Poultry census — role of livestock and poultry in Indian agriculture. Livestock farming is an integral part of crop farming and contributes substantially to household nutritional security and poverty alleviation through increased household income.
The returns from livestock especially dairying and mixed farming in small and medium holdings are larger and highly sustainable. The progress in this sector results in more balanced development of the rural economy and improvement in economic status of poor people associated with livestock.
Indian agriculture is an economic symbiosis of crop and livestock production with cattle as the foundation. Dairy animals produce milk by converting the crop residues and by products from crops which otherwise would be wasted.
Dairy sector contributes by way of cash income, draught power and manure. Livestock provides for human needs by way of 1. Food 2. Skin and 6. It is a living bank providing flexible finance in time of emergencies and also serves as insurance against crop failure for survival. If Agriculture is the foundation of our national economy Animal husbandry constitutes the sheet anchor of agriculture.
Indian agriculture marches on the patient back of the bullock. Class 2:Various systems of livestock production-extensive — semi intensive- intensive- mixed. Feed cost comparison — less Vs. Restricted movement — energy conservation, management easy. Number of animals can be maintained under direct supervision, space requirement less when compared with. Ext or SI system. Demerits : over grown hoof ; lack of exercise.
Leg problem : improperly maintained disease outbreak — severe — Economical loss — high. Integrated farming system — IFS. Class 4 :Definition of breed-classification of indigenous, exotic cattle and buffaloes -Breed characteristics of Sindhi, Kangayam and Umblacherry, Jersey, Holstein Friesian, Murrah and Surti. Cattle — 1. Indigenous 2. Exotic — Milch — Jersey, Holstein Friesian. Under good management conditions the Red Sindhi averages over kg of milk after suckling their calves but under optimum conditions there have been milk yields of over kg per lactation.
The average height of a Red Sindhi cow is cm with a body weight of kg. Bulls average cm in height and a body weight of kg.
They are normally a deep, rich red color but this can vary from a yellowish brown to dark brown. Males are darker than females and when mature may be almost black on the extremities, such as the head, feet and tail.
Class 5 :Breeding- importance of cross breeding. Signs of estrous cycle-Artificial insemination-merits and demerits. The cross bred animals will exhibit the mixture of qualities of both the parents breeds. The progeny will improve in production performance and will exhibit marked disease resistance characteristics of the native breed and is well adpated to with stand local climatic condition. Class 6: Housing management-farm site selection-space requirement for calves, heifer, milch animal and work bullocks-Type design of house.
Housing of cattle Housing is a essential for maintaining health, comport and protection for getting maximum production from the livestock. Selection of site :. Topography and Drainage 2. Labour 6. Marketing 7. Electricity 8. Ventilation 9.
Theromo neutral zone Class 7:Systems of housing-Single row system-Double row system- head to head and tail to tail-merits and demerits. Types of Housing — 1. Single row — Less than 15 animals 2. Double row — More than 15 animals a. Tail to tail system b. Head to head system Advantages of tail to tail system 1. All animals get fresh air. Spreading diseases through respiratory system is minimum 3.
Cleaning is easy. Disadvantages of tail to tail system 1. Spreading of diseases through digestive and reproductive system is high 2. Drainage channel is not exposed to sunlight.
Feeding of animals is laborious. Class 8:Care and management of new born calf and heifers. Care of the New-Born calf. Remove the mucus from the nose and mouth and clean it. If the calf does not start breathing, artificial respiration should be used by pressing and relaxing alternatively, the chest walls with hands. Another method is to hold the calf by the rear legs and lift from the floor with the head down.
This may be repeated several times and helps in restoring respiration. As soon as the calf starts breathing, observe as to whether the navel cord is still attached. The navel cord should be disinfected. The navel cord of the calf is tied about 2. Apply tincture of iodine to the cut end and repeat it days.
This will prevent infection. Then, if the cow does not lick the calf dry, or if the weather is cold, the herdsman should wipe the calf to clean and dry. Colostrum containing low fat, high protein, vitamins and minerals forms a balanced feed for new-born calves. This helps to protect the calf against various diseases as it contains antibodies. Colostrum also helps to eliminate the material accumulated in the digestive tract before it was born.
Class 9:Care and management of pregnant, lactating animals and work bullocks. Care, management of Pregnant animals. Class Milk-Definition — clean milk production-methods of milking — hand and machine milking. Preservatives and common adulterants of milk. Milk is the lacteal secretion of the mammary glands of animals.
It is obtained generally from the cow or the buffalo during the period following at least 72 hours after calving or until the milk is colostrum free. Milk is a white opaque fluid in which fat is present as an emulsion, protein and some mineral matters in colloidal suspension, and lactose together with some minerals and soluble proteins in true solution.
Thermal processing : The main purpose of heat treatment of milk is to render it sage for human consumption and to enhance its shelf life. The common pathogenic organisms likely to occur in milk are killed by relatively mild heat treatment. The most resistant organism is the Bacillus tuberculosis and hence has been made as index organism to achieve complete safety of milk. Any heat treatment, which may destroy this organism, can be relied upon to destroy all other pathogens in milk.
The thermal death of such pathogenic organisms like Tubercle bacilli, Typhus and Coliform bacteria of such pathogenic organisms like Tubercle bacilli, Typhus and Coliform bacteria and Coxiella burnettie Q fever organism has made the basis for timetemperature combinations is also a matter of optimization where both microbiological effects and quality aspects must be taken into account.
Various categories of heat. Nutrition involves various chemical reaction and physiological process which transforms Food into body tissue milk, meat, egg, wool and activities Work power. Nutrition involves ingestion, digestion, and absorption of the various Nutrients and their transport to all the body cell and the removal of unusable elements and waste products of Metabolism. Nutrients are defined as the substances which can sustain or aids in the support of the life.
Lavoiser-French Scientist is referred as father of Nutrition. There are two aspects in Animal Nutrition. Class Requirement and importance of green fodder, carrying capacity and forage cycle. Class Diseases-classification-viral, bacterial and metabolic-General control and preventive measures. Health The Condition in which all the organs and tissues in the system functions normally and harmoniously. Anychange from normal state either to single or great extent is called disease stage. Health is fundamental for a sound enterprise.
Most of the disease can be avoided by proper attention, sanitation, hygiene, nutrition and management practices. Once outbreak of disease complicated — strain — financial loss — dual — production expenditure on medicines.
So the farmer — vigilant — day to day activities- to avoid or prevent spreading of disease and to have a check on financial loss. Control of Disease Provide well ventilated and proper housing Provide balanced nutritious diet Strict hygiene and sanitation of animal houses. Follow up of latest scientific know how and management practices.
Animal Husbandry workers in all institutions are constantly confronted with the problem of equipping and operating a high-class instructional and research plant on limited funds. This problem has become more acute during the past few years because of the period of economy that has been encountered in practically every institution, and because of the post-war agricultural depression which has resulted in a marked decrease in the number of students enrolled in agriculture. With this decrease in the number of students in agriculture the per capita cost of educating men in Animal Husbandry has materially increased. Animal Husbandry Departments are faced with the fact that the teaching and research in their field is considerably more expensive than in any other line of agricultural work. This is due to the initial cost of equipment and its maintenance. One of the outstanding items of equipment in animal husbandry work is the livestock used for instruction and research.
animal husbandry pdf
Animal husbandry is an allied activity of farming, that provides additional income to our farmers. Carbon — nitrogen balance and comparative slaughter methods. Courage As Nigerian government is trying hard to diversify the economy from the oil-mono-economy to Agriculture, Livestock farming is gradually becoming the next oil. Journal of Agroecology and Natural Resource Management Print ISSN: , … Animal husbandry definition is - a branch of agriculture concerned with the production and care of domestic animals. Animal husbandry refers to livestock raising and selective breeding.
You need Adobe Reader 7. If Adobe Reader is not installed on your computer, click the button below and go to the download site. These are the positive outcomes of co-creation efforts with venture companies that have professional expertise and are aggressively applying ICT to agriculture. NTT DOCOMO is introducing information and communication technology ICT to agriculture with an emphasis on providing mobile networks and cloud solutions that are useful for farm organizations and municipalities. These are a stable communication environment available nationwide even in remote rural or mountainous areas.
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