Anatomy and physiology of stomach pdf

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anatomy and physiology of stomach pdf

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The easiest way to understand the digestive system is to divide its organs into two main categories. Particularly branches of anatomy, cells. Consider your body as a machine that runs on a fuel called food.

23.4 The Stomach

As adults, we know that a healthy digestive system is essential for good health because it converts food into raw materials that build and fuel our body cells. The organs of the digestive system can be separated into two main groups: those forming the alimentary canal and the accessory digestive organs. The alimentary canal, also called the gastrointestinal tract, is a continuous, hollow muscular tube that winds through the ventral body cavity and is open at both ends. Its organs include the following:. Food enters the digestive tract through the mouth , or oral cavity, a mucous membrane-lined cavity. The esophagus or gullet , runs from the pharynx through the diaphragm to the stomach. The role the teeth play in food processing needs little introduction; we masticate, or chew, by opening and closing our jaws and moving them from side to side while continuously using our tongue to move the food between our teeth.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: In this article, key concepts in gastric anatomy and physiology are reviewed. Attention is given to historical development of concepts of acid secretion, to the role of stomach in digestion, and to the mechanisms that protect gastric mucosa from acid and hostile luminal conditions.

The stomach is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates. The stomach has a dilated structure and functions as a vital digestive organ. In the digestive system the stomach is involved in the second phase of digestion, following chewing. It performs a chemical breakdown by means of enzymes and hydrochloric acid. In humans and many other animals, the stomach is located between the oesophagus and the small intestine. It secretes digestive enzymes and gastric acid to aid in food digestion. The pyloric sphincter controls the passage of partially digested food chyme from the stomach into the duodenum where peristalsis takes over to move this through the rest of the intestines.

Anatomy and physiology of the stomach.

This article — the second in a six-part series on the gastrointestinal tract — describes the role of the stomach in chemical and mechanical digestion, regulation of hunger, eradication of pathogens and nutrient absorption. It also discusses common stomach pathologies. After travelling through the mouth, pharynx and oesophagus, ingested food and liquids enter the stomach through the lower oesophageal sphincter. The stomach is both a reservoir for ingested food and a mixing and digestion chamber. It continues the process of mechanical and chemical digestion with the help of a range of gastric enzymes and its various layers of smooth muscle, before funnelling food turned into chyme into the duodenum. This article, the second in a six-part series exploring the gastrointestinal tract, describes the anatomy, function and common pathologies of the stomach. Citation: Knight J et al Gastrointestinal tract 2: the structure and function of the stomach.

questions on digestive system in anatomy and physiology pdf

The alimentary canal begins at the mouth, passes through the thorax, abdomen and pelvis and ends at the anus Fig. It has a general structure which is modified at different levels to provide for the processes occurring at each level Fig. The digestive processes gradually break down the foods eaten until they are in a form suitable for absorption. For example, meat, even when cooked, is chemically too complex to be absorbed from the alimentary canal. Digestion releases its constituents: amino acids, mineral salts, fat and vitamins.

Anatomy and physiology of the stomach

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  • Stomach , saclike expansion of the digestive system, between the esophagus and the small intestine ; it is located in the anterior portion of the abdominal cavity in most vertebrates. Zina S. - 04.12.2020 at 18:36
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  • The principal function of the stomach is to mix the food with acid, mucus and pepsin and then release the resulting chyme, at a con- trolled rate into the duodenum. Agathe G. - 06.12.2020 at 20:50
  • The stomach is a thick, walled organ that lies between the esophagus and the first part of the small intestine the duodenum. Zoilo C. - 08.12.2020 at 21:06
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