Microbial fermentation and production of small and macromolecules pdf
File Name: microbial fermentation and production of small and macromolecules .zip
- CH103 – Chapter 8: The Major Macromolecules
- Microbial response to acid stress: mechanisms and applications
- Anaerobic bacterial degradation of protein and lipid macromolecules in subarctic marine sediment
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Micro-organisms that are typically used within the pharmaceutical industry include: prokaryotes such as bacteria e. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptomycetes e. Streptomyces spp, Actinomyces spp , eukaryotes such as filamentous fungi e. Saccharomyces cereviciae,. The molecules that are of primary interest to the pharmaceutical industry are small molecules such as short peptides and low molecular weight organic molecules, larger molecules including proteins and nucleic acids DNA, RNA and macromolecules such as lipids and carbohydrate polymers, plus various combinations of product types, for example lipopolysaccharides, lipopeptides, peptidoglycan.
CH103 – Chapter 8: The Major Macromolecules
Biological production of organic acids from conversion of biomass derivatives has received increased attention among scientists and engineers and in business because of the attractive properties such as renewability, sustainability, degradability, and versatility. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research and development of short chain fatty acids production by anaerobic fermentation of nonfood biomass and to evaluate the status and outlook for a sustainable industrial production of such biochemicals. Volatile fatty acids VFAs such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have many industrial applications and are currently of global economic interest. The focus is mainly on the utilization of pretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass as substrate the carbohydrate route and development of the bacteria and processes that lead to a high and economically feasible production of VFA. The current and developing market for VFA is analyzed focusing on production, prices, and forecasts along with a presentation of the biotechnology companies operating in the market for sustainable biochemicals. Finally, perspectives on taking sustainable product of biochemicals from promise to market introduction are reviewed. But the report only pinpointed market issues as the important challenges for the chemical industry towards
Microbial response to acid stress: mechanisms and applications
Metrics details. The human gut microbiome is a critical component of digestion, breaking down complex carbohydrates, proteins, and to a lesser extent fats that reach the lower gastrointestinal tract. This process results in a multitude of microbial metabolites that can act both locally and systemically after being absorbed into the bloodstream. The impact of these biochemicals on human health is complex, as both potentially beneficial and potentially toxic metabolites can be yielded from such microbial pathways, and in some cases, these effects are dependent upon the metabolite concentration or organ locality. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of how macronutrient metabolism by the gut microbiome influences human health.
Microorganisms encounter acid stress during multiple bioprocesses. Microbial species have therefore developed a variety of resistance mechanisms. The damage caused by acidic environments is mitigated through the maintenance of pH homeostasis, cell membrane integrity and fluidity, metabolic regulation, and macromolecule repair. The acid tolerance mechanisms can be used to protect probiotics against gastric acids during the process of food intake, and can enhance the biosynthesis of organic acids. The combination of systems and synthetic biology technologies offers new and wide prospects for the industrial applications of microbial acid tolerance mechanisms. In this review, we summarize acid stress response mechanisms of microbial cells, illustrate the application of microbial acid tolerance in industry, and prospect the introduction of systems and synthetic biology to further explore the acid tolerance mechanisms and construct a microbial cell factory for valuable chemicals. In the process of evolution, microorganisms have optimized growth conditions for their cellular functions.
A Microbial fermentation and production of small and macro molecules. B Application of immunological principles (vaccines, diagnostics). Tissue and.
Anaerobic bacterial degradation of protein and lipid macromolecules in subarctic marine sediment
Fermentation is a metabolic process that produces chemical changes in organic substrates through the action of enzymes. In biochemistry , it is narrowly defined as the extraction of energy from carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen. In food production , it may more broadly refer to any process in which the activity of microorganisms brings about a desirable change to a foodstuff or beverage. In microorganisms, fermentation is the primary means of producing adenosine triphosphate ATP by the degradation of organic nutrients anaerobically.
It publishes original research papers and reviews, covering all aspects of Microbiology.