Political parties and political system in india in tamil pdf
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Politics of Tamil Nadu
Inclusive growth in Tamil Nadu: The role of political leadership and governance. Kartik Akileswaran Luca Graziadei. Although the culinary and linguistic differences between North and South India are widely known outside the country, less well understood abroad are the differences in how the two groupings of Indian states have fared on development.
A comparison of Tamil Nadu, a southern state, and Uttar Pradesh, a northern state, is indicative of broader regional trends. In , these two states were not so different across a number of measures related to development, albeit with Tamil Nadu achieving a generally higher performance.
Decades later, we see a much different situation. How did Tamil Nadu do this? Underlying the policies and investments that the Tamil Nadu state government has pursued are:. Since , poverty has declined steadily in the state, resulting in Tamil Nadu having lower levels of poverty than most other states in India.
This trend has played out in both rural and urban areas of Tamil Nadu, the former seeing a percentage point reduction in poverty between and and the latter seeing a percentage point reduction during the same period. Figure 1: Population below poverty line across Indian states, Figure 2: Average annual growth rate of per capita income in selected Indian states, by decade. Figure 3: Employment share by sector in Tamil Nadu, The state ranks first among all Indian states in terms of number of factories and industrial workers, and has a diversified manufacturing sector.
It is among the leading states in automobiles, components, textiles and garments, leather products, pharmaceuticals and other industries. This economic success has coincided with substantial progress on human development.
Infant mortality has declined substantially and rates are now among the lowest in India. Malnutrition is also among the lowest in the country, and is below the national average for all income groups. Across a range of health indicators, Tamil Nadu stacks up well against other high-growth, high-income states, such as Gujarat. On education, children in Tamil Nadu are staying in school longer, and the share of adults with secondary schooling is above the national average.
In terms of educational attainment across socioeconomic groups, Tamil Nadu again compares favourably with Gujarat. To be clear, Tamil Nadu still has much room for improvement: non-farm job growth has been slow in recent years, and is not keeping up with the expansion of the working-age population; women have dropped out of the labour force mirroring a countrywide trend ; open defecation remains commonplace among low-income households; and learning outcomes in primary school are no better than the all-India average.
Tamil Nadu has successfully combined a coherent industrial policy with social welfare programmes, which has generated a virtuous cycle of development.
Higher skills among workers, in turn, have allowed the state to move into more complex economic activities, diversify its economy and thus sustain growth.
First, the state has invested in infrastructure—upgrading road, rail and port networks—to enhance connectivity between its hinterland, industrial clusters and urban markets. For instance, major ports, such as Chennai, were essential in making the state an attractive location for export industries. These investments created suitable background conditions for foreign manufacturers—ranging from Standard Motors in the s to Hyundai and Ford in the s—and domestic business houses—such as the TVS Group, Rane and Amalgamations Group—alike to set up shop and to grow.
Second, the state government emphasised the spatial dimension of industrial development, by promoting industrial parks and clustering. The accession to power of Karunanidhi and his regional party, the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam DMK , in the late s reinforced this trend by leveraging new state agencies—and capable Cabinet members, such as the Minister of Industry S.
Madhavan—to accelerate industrial development. The Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation TIDCO , set up in by the previous Congress Party-led government, obtained many industrial licences and regularly partnered with the private sector to establish new industrial activities in the state, including various IT parks in the s.
The State Industries Promotion Corporation of Tamil Nadu SIPCOT was established in , and, through aggressive land acquisition, created land banks that enabled foreign investors to obtain land in a more streamlined fashion. These were used to successfully develop many industrial projects and complexes. In particular, industrial clusters and Special Economic Zones SEZs have been set up in specific sectors, including in footwear, engineering products, automobiles and IT.
This has allowed both domestic SMEs and foreign investors to contribute to technological upgrading and the expansion of export capabilities. For instance, MGR opened new avenues for education, particularly geared towards industry. Starting in the s, he also allowed private groups to establish engineering and medical colleges. While this was a means to distribute patronage e. Forward-thinking policymaking in the state has continued long after liberalisation—for example, on the contentious issue of land acquisition, where Tamil Nadu amended the process at the state level in to make it less time-consuming while other states have yet to take such steps.
While other Indian states have pursued similar industrial policies, Tamil Nadu stands out in its parallel focus on social welfare policies, in the areas of public education, social security and healthcare. Successive governments have strongly supported public education, with concerted efforts aimed at expanding free education and developing a large network of schools and universities. Since the s, various initiatives have been designed to encourage school participation, including the provision of free uniforms, textbooks and laptops, as well as cash incentives to reduce dropout rates.
As a result, Tamil Nadu today has universal primary school attendance, and the highest gross enrolment in higher education in India. These advances have played a crucial role in equipping Tamil Nadu with an educated and technically skilled workforce, making it an attractive state for investment. The launch of the universal midday meal scheme MMS in is widely seen as a pioneering idea that had a major impact on health and education outcomes in Tamil Nadu. It initially served primary schoolchildren in rural areas, and within a few years, all children up to the age of 15 were entitled to a nutritious meal each day in school.
However, World Bank appraisals have shown that the MMS has curbed malnutrition, reduced infant mortality and lowered birth rates. It has also driven school enrolment rates and led to greater classroom participation. In fact, various studies have found a dramatic positive effect on learning achievements, making the school meal programme a highly cost-effective way to improve skills among future workers. In the provision of essential public services, Tamil Nadu follows a universalistic principle, making services as broadly available as possible.
This approach has several advantages. Households below the poverty line can be difficult to identify, both conceptually and practically, meaning that targeting public services can lead to substantial exclusion errors. Moreover, when everyone has a stake in the system, its likelihood of working greatly increases.
From the late s, many states targeted the PDS towards poor households, though Tamil Nadu continued with a universal approach. This is widely acknowledged as one of the primary reasons why Tamil Nadu is one of the states with the fewest leakages of funds in its PDS system. A similar story can be told regarding healthcare. Initiatives that were launched by the central government were vigorously implemented, such as the large-scale expansion of primary health centres.
Overall, health outcomes have been transformed in Tamil Nadu. This is illustrated by the fact that areas like Hosur, which have long suffered from endemic plague and cholera, are now seeking to develop as industrial zones.
Desikachari, T. Somanathan and P. It has taken an open stance towards investment while simultaneously pursuing policies to ensure that broad swathes of the population could benefit; maintained policy consistency and commitment to industrialisation across changes in political leadership; and built up a bureaucracy that could implement its economic and social policies effectively.
As many African countries are also seeking to achieve inclusive economic transformation, they can draw lessons about political leadership and governance from the Tamil Nadu experience. The political climate in Tamil Nadu has long been influenced by ideas of social justice.
Dravidian social movements, representative of the indigenous ethnolinguistic group in Tamil Nadu, have historically been a key player in this regard.
These movements, dating to the early s, demanded social reforms and public benefits, particularly for disadvantaged i. The role that they have played not only in putting legitimate demands on the state government, but also in birthing the DMK and its offshoot the AIADMK, is frequently cited as a major pillar of the Tamil Nadu model. Karunanidhi, a lauded screenwriter in Tamil cinema as well as a novelist, political commentator and orator, entered politics not only on the back of his popularity in these domains but also through his direct involvement in local political protests.
His time as Chief Minister in the s and s saw a continued focus on the disadvantaged; he made education free, subsidised power and took various other measures aimed at reducing discrimination and supporting the welfare of marginalised groups. His supporter turned political rival MGR was a Tamil film star, and around this time starred in a number of films that promised that the state government would take care of the poor.
Indeed, MGR himself insisted on the MMS in the face of opposition, as he saw it as crucial to prevent hunger and improve learning. His leadership skills were critical in maintaining political support for the scheme and raising funding through tax increases.
Broadly speaking, social welfare policies in Tamil Nadu were designed to invest in the common man—with the recognition that these investments would drive further growth. From Karunanidhi on through Jayalalithaa, successive chief ministers provided strong political support, in terms of funding and in backing contentious actions such as land acquisition.
This political support, in turn, enabled consistent goal-setting at the highest levels of government. With a clear direction from the top, the state bureaucracy was then given space to figure out how to deliver on the industrial development agenda. Political commitment to industrialisation in Tamil Nadu manifested in at least two important ways.
First, political leaders such as Jayalalithaa and their top bureaucrats made hands-on, tailored efforts to attract specific companies and sectors. The automotive industry during the mids is a notable example. In addition to the facilitation role that the bureaucracy played, Jayalalithaa herself was instrumental in bringing the investment to the state.
She made a sizeable chunk of land available to Ford to set up its plant, and offered incentives related to infrastructure, sales and output tax exemptions, and capital and power subsidies.
It was also rumoured that Jayalalithaa spoke to senior officials in the US government to encourage them to persuade Ford to invest in Tamil Nadu. Another example is the IT sector, which was beginning to boom in the s, in Chennai among other Indian cities. Tata Consultancy Services TCS , an Indian software engineering firm, became a key private-sector partner in this process, in part by establishing their own IT campus in a Chennai suburb in We had to buy land from government and private parties.
When we had a problem with some clearance, the then Chief Minister Jayalalithaa stepped in and sorted it out. The second way in which political commitment to industrial development manifested in Tamil Nadu was through the policy consistency that successive, opposing administrations maintained over time.
Neither party could wipe out the other on ideological grounds, since as discussed previously, they shared a range of positions. Their similar viewpoints translated into overlapping constituencies, for whom they had to compete intensely and deliver tangible benefits.
In addition, ideological closeness increased the chances that power would alternate between the two parties regularly, as they had little policy basis on which to differentiate themselves from one another. As a result, it was not in the interest of any given administration to reverse successful policies or block investments secured by the previous administration; doing so would likely go against their own ideology and the preferences of their own constituents.
This policy stability was a boon to productive industrial sectors, and even lured those investing in technology-intensive businesses despite their longer timelines for learning and pay-offs. Again, the automotive industry provides an interesting example. Yet his administration lived up to previously agreed government commitments, enabling Hyundai to roll out the first car from their operations in Tamil Nadu in September The commitment of the government to creating relevant policies and incentives is necessary.
In the system of democracy, the government ruling party keeps changing. An election keeps coming and after five years the government changes. But an industrial development plan needs 40 or 50 years, it does not respect this change of governments. A successful government should keep the promises of the previous government in pursuing such investment projects continuously.
The Government and Politics of India
The party has enjoyed broad support among members of the higher castes and in northern India. It has attempted to attract support from lower castes, particularly through the appointment of several lower-caste members to prominent party positions. The BJS advocated the rebuilding of India in accordance with Hindu culture and called for the formation of a strong unified state. Ten years later the party, led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee , joined three other political parties to form the Janata Party and took over the reins of government. Plagued by factionalism and internal disputes, however, the government collapsed in July The BJP was formally established in , following a split by dissidents within the Janata coalition, whose leaders wanted to prohibit elected BJS officials from participating in the RSS.
India has a multi-party system with recognition accorded to national and state and district level parties. Other political parties that wish to contest local, state or national elections are required to be registered by the Election Commission of India. Registered parties are upgraded as recognised national or state level parties based upon objective criteria. A recognised party enjoys privileges like a reserved party symbol, [A] free broadcast time on state run television and radio, a consultation in setting of election dates and giving input in setting electoral rules and regulations. This listing is according to the Indian general election and Legislative Assembly elections and any party aspiring to state or national party status must fulfil at least one of the concerned criteria.
List of political parties in India
India has a multi-party system with recognition accorded to national and state and district level parties. Other political parties that wish to contest local, state or national elections are required to be registered by the Election Commission of India. Registered parties are upgraded as recognised national or state level parties based upon objective criteria. A recognised party enjoys privileges like a reserved party symbol, [A] free broadcast time on state run television and radio, a consultation in setting of election dates and giving input in setting electoral rules and regulations.
The region of Tamil Nadu indicates historical records of human habitation at least for 3, years. Kamaraj was the most influential leader during the Congress era in Tamil Nadu. Prakasam , O.
Inclusive growth in Tamil Nadu: The role of political leadership and governance. Kartik Akileswaran Luca Graziadei. Although the culinary and linguistic differences between North and South India are widely known outside the country, less well understood abroad are the differences in how the two groupings of Indian states have fared on development. A comparison of Tamil Nadu, a southern state, and Uttar Pradesh, a northern state, is indicative of broader regional trends. In , these two states were not so different across a number of measures related to development, albeit with Tamil Nadu achieving a generally higher performance.