Current and future value stream mapping file type pdf
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- Create a value stream map
- Creating A Value Stream Map
- Value Stream Mapping Symbols and Icons
- Value-stream mapping
Create a value stream map
Value stream mapping sometimes called VSM is a lean manufacturing technique to analyze, design, and manage the flow of materials and information required to bring a product to a customer. Also known as "material and information-flow mapping", it uses a system of standard symbols to depict various work streams and information flows. Value stream mapping can be used to improve any process where there are repeatable steps — and especially when there are multiple handoffs. In manufacturing, handoffs are easier to visualize because they usually involve the handoff of a tangible deliverable through stations.
If, for example, a problem arises when assembling a vehicle, line workers can see the physical parts accumulating and jamming up a certain part of the assembly line. They can then stop the line to solve that problem and get the process flowing again. Lean value stream mapping has gained momentum in knowledge work because it results in better team communication and more effective collaboration.
Much of the waste in knowledge work occurs in the handoffs or wait time between team members, not within the steps themselves. Inefficient handoffs lead to low productivity and poor quality.
Value stream mapping helps identify waste and streamline the production process. Value stream mapping can be applied to both the product and customer delivery flows. Product flow focuses on steps required to optimize product delivery and completion. The customer flow focuses on the steps required to deliver on end user requests and expectations.
The origins of value stream mapping are often attributed to Toyota Motor Corporation. However, this is a murky topic. Toyota may have adopted it from other origin sources or it may have grown organically from shared ideas in the lean manufacturing community. Early versions of diagrams revealing the flow of materials and information can be found as early as in a book called Installing Efficiency Methods, by Charles E.
Value stream mapping can be wasteful in itself, if you are not careful. The domain determines the process items that flow through the value stream map.
In a supply chain, value stream mapping can root out costly delays leading to a finished product. In manufacturing, value stream mapping helps identify waste by analyzing each step of material handling and information flow. The process items that flow through the value stream are materials.
In service industries, value stream mapping facilitates effective and timely services for external customers, whereas inside administration and offices, it facilitates services for internal customers. In healthcare, value stream mapping ensures that patients are effectively treated with high-quality care. The process items that flow through the value stream are customer needs. Value stream mapping originated in the enterprise manufacturing industry. The company uses value stream mapping to outline the steps required to produce a new car.
After reviewing car production steps, the company identifies a handoff stage in the development that appears wasteful. This handoff stage requires a forklift to move raw materials from one side of a warehouse to the production line. However, this move has safety risks and is time consuming. From this insight the company decides to permanently move the raw material storage directly adjacent to the production line.
This increases efficiency and potentially removes the requirement of the forklift altogether! Overproduction is a catalyst to many other forms of waste. When a manufactured product is overproduced it leads to further waste through unnecessary costs like extra storage, wasted raw materials, and capital frozen in useless inventory. Inventory waste is the liability cost that comes with storing and preserving a surplus inventory. This waste includes waste of space for housing inventory, waste of rent for storage space, waste of transportation costs, waste caused from deterioration of housed products.
Motion waste is the cost of all the motion by person or machine that could be minimized. The previous example we demonstrated with the forklift and supply location is a great example of motion waste and optimization.
Motion waste has many wasteful byproducts, including pollution, fuel waste from operating vehicles, maintenance repairs, and costs from equipment breaking down. Accidents do happen, and they can be expensive. Defect waste management is the effort to identify and mitigate accidents and imperfections that lead to defective final products. Defects are costly as they need to be replaced, may have additional recycling costs, or may be a total loss of raw materials.
Over-processing waste refers to any step of the manufacturing component that can be deemed unnecessary. Examples include adding features users did not ask for Or polishing areas of a product that may not be visible to a user.
Waiting waste is the cost of any step in the manufacturing processing that is slow and causes a delayed reaction to the final output.
Waiting causes expenses in lighting, heating, cooling, and the risk of materials, or contracts expiring. Transport waste is very similar to motion waste. Transport waste deals with external transport movement between multiple locations or third-party partnerships where motion deals with internal movement in the same location.
Software development entails shipping ideas into tangible user experiences that provide value to the customer. The software development value stream mapping flow stages are primarily concerned with cross-team communication. The user requests a feature, product teams design functionality, engineers receive the design and build the software, and the software is shipped to the end user.
Value stream management for software can be used to identify points of waste between these stages. The following is a list of seven types of waste found in software development or other creative work. This occurs when software is pushed out in an incomplete state.
It may happen due to a lack of complete specification, or lack of automated test coverage. Partially completed work also causes a cascade of other waste since additional work is needed to push more updates and fill in the missing functionality. Extra features are features directly not requested by users but cooked up internally on a hunch or speculation.
Extra features may present themselves as well intentioned but often are a byproduct of a disconnect from actual customer needs. Relearning waste can also occur from lack of internal documentation. If a software failure or outage occurs it is a best practice to investigate and document why the outage happened and how it was remedied.
If a failure occurs again and it has not been documented, there will need to be another investigation and remediation. Relearning waste also occurs when a team or individual needs to overcome the learning curve of an unfamiliar technology.
Tech trends rapidly come and go. Flavor of the month frameworks and libraries get jumped on by junior developers pumped by market trends and hype. Even though an organization already knows how to build a certain feature they may have to relearn how to build it in new framework.
Handoff waste occurs when project owners change when roles change or there is employee turnover. Key team members leave and a project gets handed to a team member without context. This scenario is hard to avoid. Handoff otherwise occurs from poor management and changing team member priorities while in action. Handoff waste can also occur through communication pipelines. For example, the design team might integrate more closely with the engineering team to help prevent any communication errors when passing a mockup from design to engineering.
This is an example of avoiding handoff waste. Delays usually occur when there are tightly coupled dependencies on a project Downstream execution on a project may be halted due to a dependency on an upstream decision or resource. While it's best to avoid dependencies between these tasks, it can be challenging to perfectly decouple tasks.
A delay in one task may cost delays in dependants. Delays can cause a cascade of waste. Software development often happens at a rapid pace and tasks are distributed amongst team members. Task switching waste has similar qualities as handoff waste.
Where handoff waste occurs when tasks switch owners between team members, task switching waste happens to an individual. Mental context switching is expensive. Efficient organizations work to optimize this mental state for their engineers. Inefficient organizations bombard their engineers with non-critical distractions like meetings and emails that disrupt their workflow. Defect waste happens when bugs are pushed in software. Defects are similar to partially completed work but can be more wasteful because defects are unknown and partially completed work is usually known ahead of time.
Defects may be identified by customers and then reported to customer support, which can be an expensive pipeline that causes delays and task switching. Do your customers feel like it takes too long to deliver new features or improvements to a product? Publish the problem statement and get everyone on the same page. The C-suite should set aside enough budget to ensure that execution is uninterrupted.
Once the problem statement is published, limit the scope of your value stream mapping accordingly. You may not need to map the release process in its entirety, and focus on a particular area instead. Be sure to review the bounded process. This can make a difference, since firsthand experience cannot be substituted by possibly biased narratives and possibly incomplete and inaccurate documentation done by others. Define the steps. I conduct a value stream mapping analysis multiple times.
While this may sound redundant, I have found missing pieces in the second pass that were not exposed in the first pass. And when we investigated further, skeletons fell out of the closet during the third and final pass!
As you conduct value stream mapping, note the process data in the data boxes of the map. Process data includes but is not limited to the number of people involved, the average number of working hours, cycle time, wait time, uptime, downtime, and more. Be inquisitive.
Creating A Value Stream Map
Hayden, Marie A. Safety 64 : 53— Key Takeaways This article presents research that shows how value stream maps VSMs were used to document the procurement process for office equipment to establish better methods of helping users obtain equipment to reduce the risk of overuse injuries in their office jobs. The research consisted of two parts: a survey to employees regarding office equipment; and. VSMs of the current process were created from the survey data and improved with focus group input. The benefits of using a VSM include obtaining user input, creating better documentation and offering recommendations to streamline the process.
Value Stream Mapping Symbols and Icons
Value-stream mapping , also known as "material- and information-flow mapping",  is a lean -management method for analyzing the current state and designing a future state for the series of events that take a product or service from the beginning of the specific process until it reaches the customer. A value stream map is a visual tool that displays all critical steps in a specific process and easily quantifies the time and volume taken at each stage. Whereas a value stream map represents a core business process that adds value to a material product, a value chain diagram shows an overview of all activities within a company. The purpose of value-stream mapping is to identify and remove or reduce "waste" in value streams, thereby increasing the efficiency of a given value stream. Waste removal is intended to increase productivity by creating leaner operations which in turn make waste and quality problems easier to identify.
It helps to understand the flow of value in the process as perceived by the customer. Its primary goal is to identify and eliminate waste Muda and make the process as close to lean as possible. Although it is often associated with manufacturing, it can also be applied in product development and service-related industries such as healthcare, hospitality and logistics. A value stream map is considered an improvement tool rather than just a definition of how the process operates or should operate. It is a dynamic tool as it is continually be updated as the process improved. It tends to display more information than a typical process map or flowchart. However, a value stream map does not track all possible paths and decisions a process can take.
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analysis, we also provide recommendations and present future state map (to-be-process). 2. VALUE-STREAM MAPPING: AN OVERVIEW. Value Stream Mapping.