Waveforms and its types pdf
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- Techniques of EMG signal analysis: detection, processing, classification and applications
- Function generator
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A common way to detect asynchronies is by examining ventilator waveforms. There are different types of asynchronies, each with a set of characteristics that can be visually recognized. To aid you in recognizing the tell-tale characteristics of each asynchrony, we have created a two-page reference card also called "cheatsheet".
Techniques of EMG signal analysis: detection, processing, classification and applications
A function generator is a signal source that has the capability of producing different types of waveforms as its output signal. The most common output waveforms are sine-waves, triangular waves , square waves , and sawtooth waves. The frequencies of such waveforms may be adjusted from a fraction of a hertz to several hundred kHz. Actually, the function generators are very versatile instruments as they are capable of producing a wide variety of waveforms and frequencies. In fact, each of the waveforms they generate is particularly suitable for a different group of applications. The uses of sinusoidal outputs and square-wave outputs have already been described in the earlier Arts. The triangular-wave and sawtooth wave outputs of function generators are commonly used for those applications which need a signal that increases or reduces at a specific linear rate.
EMG signals acquired from muscles require advanced methods for detection, decomposition, processing, and classification. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the various methodologies and algorithms for EMG signal analysis to provide efficient and effective ways of understanding the signal and its nature. We further point up some of the hardware implementations using EMG focusing on applications related to prosthetic hand control, grasp recognition, and human computer interaction. A comparison study is also given to show performance of various EMG signal analysis methods. This paper provides researchers a good understanding of EMG signal and its analysis procedures. This knowledge will help them develop more powerful, flexible, and efficient applications. Biomedical signal means a collective electrical signal acquired from any organ that represents a physical variable of interest.
A function generator is usually a piece of electronic test equipment or software used to generate different types of electrical waveforms over a wide range of frequencies. Some of the most common waveforms produced by the function generator are the sine wave , square wave, triangular wave and sawtooth shapes. These waveforms can be either repetitive or single-shot which requires an internal or external trigger source. In addition to producing sine waves, function generators may typically produce other repetitive waveforms including sawtooth and triangular waveforms, square waves, and pulses. Another feature included on many function generators is the ability to add a DC offset. Although function generators cover both audio and RF frequencies, they are usually not suitable for applications that need low distortion or stable frequency signals.
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In electronics , acoustics , and related fields, the waveform of a signal is the shape of its graph as a function of time, independent of its time and magnitude scales and of any displacement in time. In electronics, the term is usually applied to periodically varying voltages , currents , or electromagnetic fields. In acoustics, it is usually applied to steady periodic sounds —variations of pressure in air or other media. In these cases, the waveform is an attribute that is independent of the frequency , amplitude , or phase shift of the signal. The term can also be used for non-periodic signals, like chirps and pulses.
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