Social identity theory and self categorization theory a historical review pdf
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- From Group Identity to Political Cohesion and Commitment
- Social Identity Theory and Self‐categorization Theory: A Historical Review
- Social identity theory
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From Group Identity to Political Cohesion and Commitment
The term social identity approach refers to research and theory pertaining to social identity theory and self-categorization theory —two intertwined, but distinct, social psychological theories. These theories should be thought of as overlapping. Self-categorization theory can also be thought of as developed to address limitations of social identity theory. Although this term may be useful when contrasting broad social psychological movements, when applying either theory it is thought of as beneficial to distinguish carefully between the two theories in such a way that their specific characteristics can be retained. The social identity approach has been applied to a wide variety of fields and continues to be very influential. There is a high citation rate for key social identity papers and that rate continues to increase. The social identity approach has been contrasted with the social cohesion approach when it comes to defining social groups.
Much of the research on individual attainment in educational settings has focused on individual differences. This chapter sets out the role of groups and group processes. After reviewing evidence for the role of social comparison in the classroom, and theory and research on ethnic group differences, we consider the impact of category memberships, stereotypes, and threat on educational performance. We introduce social identity theory and explain its relevance to educational outcomes. We then offer an integrative social identity model for education SIME that incorporates three elements of education research: social comparison, stereotypes, and identity. The model provides a more comprehensive perspective on the role of intergroup and intragroup relations and indicates how and which group memberships can present barriers to, or reveal new horizons for, performance and achievement. We describe how these elements may work together in practice and conclude by considering prospects and approaches for future research.
The psychology of group identification is central to the study of political behavior. The conditions under which group identities become politicized, the psychology underlying this process, and the consequences of political identities for political cohesion and engagement are the subject of this chapter. The first section is devoted to a definition of political identity and a discussion of key theoretical approaches to the study of group-based political cohesion. The second section focuses on the conditions, including strong identities and grievances, that generate group-based political cohesion. The third section deals with emotions as a catalyst for group-based political action.
Social Identity Theory and Self‐categorization Theory: A Historical Review
A growing body of evidence suggests that two distinct forms of group alignment are possible: identification and fusion the former asserts that group and personal identity are distinct, while the latter asserts group and personal identities are functionally equivalent and mutually reinforcing. Among highly fused individuals, group identity taps directly into personal agency and so any attack on the group is perceived as a personal attack and motivates a willingness to fight and possibly even die as a defensive response. As such, identity fusion is relevant in explaining violent extremism, including suicidal terrorist attacks. Identity fusion is theorized to arise as a result from experiences which are 1 perceived as shared and 2 transformative, however evidence for this relationship remains limited. Here, we present a pre-registered study in which we examine the role of transformativeness and perceived sharedness of group-defining events in generating identity fusion. We find that both of these factors are predictive of identity fusion but that the relationship with transformativeness was more consistent than perceived sharedness across analyses in a sample of Indonesian Muslims. For decades, psychologists have understood group alignment in terms of group identification as outlined by the social identity approach, which combines social identity theory SIT and self-categorization theory Tajfel and Turner, ; Haslam et al.
Social Identity Theory and Self-categorization Theory: A Historical Review. Nathalia Salim. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 2/1 (): –
Social identity theory
Although aspects of social identity theory are familiar to organizational psychologists, its elaboration, through self-categorization theory, of how social categorization and prototype-based depersonalization actually produce social identity effects is less well known. We describe these processes, relate self-categorization theory to social identity theory, describe new theoretical developments in detail, and show how these developments can address a range of organizational phenomena. We discuss cohesion and deviance, leadership, subgroup and sociodemographic structure, and mergers and acquisitions. Learn About the New eReader. Downloaded times in the past 12 months.
By Dr. Saul McLeod , updated Henri Tajfel's greatest contribution to psychology was social identity theory. Tajfel proposed that the groups e.
Self-categorization theory is a theory in social psychology that describes the circumstances under which a person will perceive collections of people including themselves as a group, as well as the consequences of perceiving people in group terms. It was in part developed to address questions that arose in response to social identity theory about the mechanistic underpinnings of social identification. Self-categorization theory has been influential in the academic field of social psychology and beyond.