# Examples of independent and dependent variables in research studies pdf

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- What Are Independent and Dependent Variables?
- Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper
- Independent and dependent variables
- Independent and Dependent Variable Examples

*By Dr. Saul McLeod , updated Variables are given a special name that only applies to experimental investigations.*

## What Are Independent and Dependent Variables?

The dependent variable is the variable that is being measured or tested in an experiment. For example, in a study looking at how tutoring impacts test scores, the dependent variable would be the participants' test scores, since that is what is being measured. In a psychology experiment , researchers are looking at how changes in the independent variable cause changes in the dependent variable. One way to help identify the dependent variable is to remember that it depends on the independent variable. When researchers make changes to the independent variable, they then measure any resulting changes to the dependent variable.

To properly identify the key differences between dependent and independent variables, we need to first understand what variables are. Although the meaning may slightly vary depending on how and in which field it is being used, it points to the same thing—especially in the field of mathematical modelling, statistical modelling and experimental sciences. Generally, a variable is a character, number, or quantity that can take different values over time. Variables are classified into 2 main types, namely; dependent and independent variables. This classification is made based on the variable's ability to change without depending on another variable. Dependent variables are variables whose changes depend solely on another variable—usually the independent variable.

Published on May 20, by Lauren Thomas. Revised on March 2, In research, variables are any characteristics that can take on different values, such as height, age, species, or exam score. In scientific research, we often want to study the effect of one variable on another one. For example, you might want to test whether students who spend more time studying get better exam scores.

## Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

In scientific terms, a variable is something that researchers are studying. Every scientific experiment involves at least one independent variable and one dependent variable. Discover the difference between these two types of variables and review several examples of each type. Dependent variables are factors studied in terms of how they change in relation to independent variables. In a scientific study, the dependent variable is the variable that the researcher is testing and measuring in relation to the independent variable. The researcher is seeking to determine whether or not manipulating the independent variable will lead to different outcomes regarding the dependent variable. In a study or experiment, independent variables are referred to as treatment variables.

## Independent and dependent variables

Dependent Variable The variable that depends on other factors that are measured. These variables are expected to change as a result of an experimental manipulation of the independent variable or variables. It is the presumed effect. Independent Variable The variable that is stable and unaffected by the other variables you are trying to measure. It refers to the condition of an experiment that is systematically manipulated by the investigator.

Both the independent variable and dependent variable are examined in an experiment using the scientific method , so it's important to know what they are and how to use them. Here are the definitions for independent and dependent variables, examples of each variable, and the explanation for how to graph them. The independent variable is the condition that you change in an experiment. It is the variable you control.

### Independent and Dependent Variable Examples

Our websites may use cookies to personalize and enhance your experience. By continuing without changing your cookie settings, you agree to this collection. For more information, please see our University Websites Privacy Notice. Currently, the term participant rather than subject is used when describing the people from whom we collect data. Ordinal, interval, and ratio variables are quantitative. Height in inches and scores on a test would be examples of quantitative variables.

The purpose of all research is to describe and explain variance in the world. Variance is simply the difference; that is, variation that occurs naturally in the world or change that we create as a result of a manipulation. Variables are names that are given to the variance we wish to explain. A variable is either a result of some force or is itself the force that causes a change in another variable. In experiments, these are called dependent and independent variables respectively. When a researcher gives an active medication to one group of people and a placebo, or inactive medication, to another group of people, the independent variable is the medication treatment.

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