Hospital anxiety and depression scale spanish pdf
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- A validation study of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) in a Spanish population
- Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)
- Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): Arabic - Vacau
Correspondence Address : Prof. Background and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to carefully translate and psychometrically validate the depression, anxiety, and stress scale DASS in Hindi language for Hindi-speaking head and neck cancer HNC and oral potentially malignant disorder OPMD patients. According to internationally accepted guidelines, forward and backward translation procedures were performed, to develop a culturally acceptable version of DASS Validated Hindi version of hospital anxiety and depression scale HADS questionnaire was used to compare the scores.
A validation study of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) in a Spanish population
Los manuscritos son evaluados, antes de ser aceptados, por revisores externos peer-review. The HADS is a questionnaire widely used to evaluate anxiety and depression, although its use in fibromyalgia patients has not yet been reported. The aim of this study is to know the usefulness of the HADS to evaluate the emotional aspects related to fibromyalgia patients.. This paper studies a sample of fibromyalgia patients. The scientific goodness of the questionnaire is analysed, and its structure is compared with other models by confirmatory factor analysis.
Two external severity indices are used, number of tender points and patient's employment situation.. The results show higher levels of anxiety than in other disorders, adequate reliability and a three-factor model with better statistical fit. Nevertheless, this structure was not shown more useful than the two-factor structure for the external criteria studied..
The HADS has been shown to be a useful tool for exploring the presence of anxiety and depression in fibromyalgia patients and that the number of tender points does not seem to be related to the severity of the psychological aspects measured by the HADS in our sample, while there does seem to be a correspondence between psychological condition and absence from work.. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer la utilidad del HADS para evaluar los aspectos emocionales presentes en los pacientes de fibromialgia..
Se estudia a una muestra de pacientes de fibromialgia. Se obtienen altos niveles de ansiedad, mayores que en otros trastornos. Fibromyalgia syndrome FMS is characterised by heterogeneous symptoms: generalised musculoskeletal pain, 1 sleep disorders and various somatic symptoms, 2,3 along with emotional disturbances 4 that significantly affect the patient's family life overall, as well as their work and personal environments.
The significance of psychological coping with the illness as well as its emotional aspects have been widely recognised in this syndrome. Among the various relevant emotional factors in fibromyalgia, anxiety and depression are the most prominent pathologies associated with the illness.
Consequently, the possible presence of anxiety and depression in fibromyalgia patients should be assessed. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS 10,11 has been used widely to measure levels of anxiety and depression in samples of patients with arthritis or cancer, women with postpartum depression and patients with traumatic cerebral lesions, among others. Given the existing overlap between medical and psychological symptoms of the illness, this questionnaire is more appropriate as it focuses on evaluating the cognitive aspects of anxiety and depression, 18 thus accrediting its sensitivity as well.
Psychological factors, such as anxiety and depression, should be compared with severity and syndrome development criteria. Objective criteria are not part of patient-completed questionnaires, making clarification of the comparison easier. Even though other authors have questioned the usefulness of considering the number of tender points, the scientific community 19 widely accepts the use of this count. The second index is the patient's work situation; this index assesses the severity of the syndrome and shows how it affects the patient's social and personal life.
The objective of this study was to ascertain the usefulness of the HADS in evaluating emotional aspects related to patients with fibromyalgia. The sample consisted of a total of patients, 10 males and females, with a mean age of The patients lived in cities and had been diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to classification by the American College of Rheumatology ACR. Patients were excluded if they displayed severe functional limitations and cardiovascular or respiratory disorders that limited their aerobic capacity.
Patients were also excluded if they suffered from uncontrolled psychiatric disorders, had a legal claim in process related to their illness or were participating in another clinical study at the time. After patients were accepted for the study, they signed an informed consent form to participate. The patients formed part of a broad study 20 in which various different questionnaires were used, in addition to an exploratory examination of the symptoms of the illness.
Demographic characteristics are presented in Table 1. Main demographic characteristics found in the inclusion visit of the study in patients with fibromyalgia. The study was carried out between January and April of Data were obtained in 2 stages. In the first, an interview was performed and the patient's clinical history was reviewed to determine their suitability for the study.
They were then informed and asked to participate. In the second stage, they were given various different questionnaires and tests, as previously mentioned. The variables to consider in this study were the HADS scores, the number of tender points—according to the ACR—and the patient's work situation: no occupational disability, temporary occupational disability and permanent occupational disability. Data were analysed with the SPSS program, version A confirmatory factor analysis was performed using AMOS version 16 to verify the structure of the scale.
The adjustment of data to various different models was studied, including the original 2-factor model proposed by Zigmond and Snaith 11 and a series of 3-factor models: McCue et al. In an effort to study the differences between HADS scores related to the number of tender points and work situation, a t -test analysis was used. A regression analysis was also used to explain the relationship between those variables. On the HADS anxiety scale, patients achieved a mean score of On the depression scale, the mean score was Finally, regarding the number of tender points, the mean was Applying the cut-off values proposed by Snaith and Zigmond 10 for anxiety scores, patients Regarding the depression scores, applying the same cut-off points, patients According to the results of the confirmatory factor analysis, shown in Table 2 , the model that was best adapted to the data from our study was that proposed by Cacci et al.
This model accounted for the existence of 3 factors designated as anxiety items 1, 5, 9 and 13 , agitation 7, 11 and 14 and depression 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and The resulting model is presented in Fig. Structure of the factors from the HADS, determined using fit tests on the models derived from previous factor analysis. The fit indexes of the model are indicated in bold. The Cacci et al. Reliability was studied with the use of Cronbach's alpha coefficient.
A value of 0. On the anxiety scale with Cacci et al. All of the anxiety items showed significant correlations with the complete scale.
The depression items also presented a significant correlation with the complete scale. All were positive correlations. The correlation between the anxiety scale and the depression scale was 0. On the 3-factor scale, the correlations were 0.
The correlation between the anxiety scale with the 2-factor solution and the anxiety and agitation factors was 0. The sample was analysed using the number of tender points as a criterion for characterising the syndrome. It was thought that dividing the sample according to the number of tender points would contribute to its segmentation by using a criterion relevant to its own definition as an illness.
Three groups were used, corresponding to the 3 quartiles on the distribution of the number of tender points. The first quartile included patients with 15 points or less and the third quartile included patients with 18 points.
Below the first quartile, the mean was On the third quartile, the mean was The t -test did not identify any statistically significant differences. Below the first quartile, the mean was 9. On the third quartile, the mean was 9. The depression scores were the same as in the 2-factor solution.
The descriptive data are presented in Table 3. HADS scores, mean standard deviation according to work situation and factor structure. The multivariate logistic analysis showed that only depression was associated with work situation: temporary occupational disability odds ratio 1.
This study revealed the usefulness of the HADS questionnaire in its application to patients with fibromyalgia. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the 3-model factor by Cacci et al.
This model modified the anxiety scale, identifying the anxiety and agitation scales instead. However, its high correlation with the original scale, as well as its inability to differentiate patients with fibromyalgia brought the usefulness of the structure into question.
The Dunbar et al. It may thus be more sensible to maintain the 2 original subscales. The reliability observed according to Cronbach's alpha coefficient was considered appropriate and similar to that observed in other studies. As shown in Table 4 , comparing the results in descriptive terms, there were higher levels of anxiety and depression in patients with fibromyalgia compared to the normal population adults and students. It was even more notable that, in the cases of a physical condition patients with traumatic cerebral lesions or laryngeal cancer , the levels of anxiety and depression were lower than in patients with fibromyalgia.
Still more surprising was the observation that patients with a psychiatric diagnosis adaptive disorder or depression presented lower levels of anxiety than patients with fibromyalgia.
This was especially interesting because of its practical repercussions for the clinician, as it confirmed the need to assess the psychological aspects of the illness anxiety and depression , given the high levels in these patients compared to those in other samples. Mean standard deviation of the scores from the anxiety and depression scales on the HADS in published studies with different samples and observed mean in this study of patients with fibromyalgia.
Terol et al. McCue et al. Cacci et al. Quintana et al. Chivite et al. Singer et al. Cooper-Evans et al. Tuohy and McVey. The mean anxiety score was higher than that observed in other studies. Of all those reviewed, only 1 study 36 —performed with eating disorder patients—showed a similar figure: It should also be considered that our study included a patient population consisting of practically all females.
This could be a factor to consider, since other authors 24 have observed higher scores in females 8.
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)
Unless otherwise stated, CORC is not the developer or copyright holder of these measures. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale RCADS is a item, youth self-report questionnaire with subscales including: separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and low mood major depressive disorder. It also yields a Total Anxiety Scale sum of the 5 anxiety subscales and a Total Internalizing Scale sum of all 6 subscales. The questionnaire takes between five and ten minutes to administer. Both parent and child questionnaires can be given to the appropriate respondent to complete themselves. Alternatively, in order to ensure that each item is understood by the respondent, or to gain additional information about each response, the questionnaires can be administered directly by the clinician who can ask follow-up questions.
Request PDF | A validation study of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in a Spanish population | The present study aims to.
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): Arabic - Vacau
An issue of concern in the mental health field, amongst others, is that services and. The protocol. Etic constructs are. Winston and Smith, People from different cultural backgrounds also may.
To adapt and validate the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS for adult Chilean cancer patients, and to provide information about their prevalence of anxiety and depression. The language adjustment of the scale was carried out with the opinions of 10 expert linguists and with a pilot study on 17 cancer patients. Reliability analysis showed an adequate internal consistency of both subscales.