Handbook of industrial work and organizational psychology volume 3 pdf
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- HANDBOOK of PSYCHOLOGY VOLUME 12 INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
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In the early s Dunnette did it again. The second edition, edited by Dunnette and Leaetta M. The definitive reviews and even visionary statements targeted virtually all areas of industrial and organizational psychology and again set the standards for the field. Knowing the standard to which we would be inevitably compared, we undertook the task of editing the present volume with great trepidation.
Ours was a more modest and somewhat different objective. As a single volume nested within a handbook for all of psychology, our purpose was to provide the depth and breadth that would capture the domain of industrial and organizational psychology in a way valuable for scholars and students in that field domain; however, we also strove to create a volume to which those outside the field could turn in order to gain an appreciation of the latest thinking in this area of interest.
To accomplish these purposes, we have again assembled a collection of leading scholars in the field. We asked them to describe the work in their area, but to do so in a way that would speak to both those inside and outside the field; we believe they did this very well-and did it in such a way that this volume can serve as a sequel to the handbook of the s, informing and guiding industrial and organizational psychology in the early part of the twenty-first century.
What follows begins by addressing the field of industrial and organizational psychology as a whole and describing some of the major accomplishments and new directions that have occurred since the publishing of the Dunnette and Hough handbook.
After some discussion of our discipline and advancements in this field, we turn to a preview of individual chapters. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Overarching ModelsIndustrial and organizational psychology is the study of human behavior in organizations; the behaviors of interest contribute to either the effectiveness of organizational functioning, the satisfaction and well-being of those who populate the organizations, or both.
These behaviors and the people who exhibit them exist in a dynamic open system. Behaviors observed in the present are influenced by past behaviors and conditions, as well as by the anticipation of future ones. Individuals are systems nested within other systems-such as teams and work groups-that are nested under larger organizational systems. All of these systems are open to the outside through connections to family members, customers, and multiple other potential sources of influence on organizational members' behavior.
Open SystemsAlthough open systems models capture the complexities of a psychology bound by the context in which the behaviors occur, the field of industrial and organizational psychology has-for the most part-constrained its domain to that of the interface between individuals and their environments, where that environment is physical tasks, jobs, working conditions, organizational structures or social superiors, subordinates, peers.
Furthermore, the beliefs, feelings, and behaviors of interest within that domain are limited to those for which there is some reason to believe that understanding them will enhance our ability to influence organizational effectiveness or individual well-being.
FitUnderlying the psychological focus on individuals in organizational settings is the implicit assumption that both the organization and the individual are best served when there is a good fit between the goals, expectations, and conditions of organizations e.
From a prescriptive viewpoint, there are many ways to obtain a good fit. One is to consider organizations and people as relatively fixed entities.
From this position, characteristics of each entity are assessed and the match is accomplished through selection-selection of people by organizations or organizations by people. The second option to obtain fit is to modify either or both of the two domains. In the case of changing people, training and development are primary mechanisms. Job design, organizational development, organizational design, or policies and practices related to goals, work rules, and other factors are relevant for changing organizations.
For any particular case, multiple factors influence the fit, and the fit is a dynamic interaction between people and the organization, with each influencing the other over time. In addition, of course, while efforts at producing good fit are underway, both the individual and the organization are subject to evolutionary forces outside of the control of either the leaders of an organization or those whom they trust as advisors.
For much of industrial and organizational psychological research, the person-organization P-O fit has been implicit.
In the last decade, considerably more effort has been devoted to developing it explicitly. The P-O model posits that a fit between applicants' personal characteristics and attributes of the organization contributes in important ways to individual performance and retention, as well as to organizational effectiveness.
One way to demonstrate support for the P-O model is to find interactions between applicants' personal characteristics and organizational attributes. For example, Cable and Judge showed that a fit between applicants' personality and pay system characteristics enhanced the prediction of pay preferences and job attractiveness over and above the main effects of pay system characteristics themselves. Gustafson and Mumford found that individuals' personality predicted job satisfaction and performance better when the type of job situation was taken into account, supporting a P-O fit interpretation.
An important issue with P-O fit is how to conceptualize and measure it. Kristof pointed out that there has been considerable confusion on this issue.
For example, P-O fit may be conceived of as person-environment congruence that confounds P-O fit with person-vocation and person-job fit. Also, fit has been measured directly by obtaining a single judgment of congruence between applicant and organizational characteristics and indirectly by getting independent judgments of person and organization characteristics and then assessing the similarities and differences.
Finally, for the indirect approach, various indexes of fit are of course possible. Edwards provided a useful discussion of fit indexes and recommended a polynomial regression approach to overcome certain measurement problems.
The most compelling theoretical approach to modeling P-O fit is the attraction-selection-attrition ASA model Schneider, Those who advocate this approach argue that individuals are attracted to organizations whose members are similar to them in relation to personality, values, and other attributes. Organizations in turn find attractive and are more likely to select those who possess knowledge, skills, and abilities similar to the ones that their organizational members possess.
After they have been offered a job, those more similar are more likely to accept the job and are also more likely to be successfully socialized into the organization. Over time, those who do not fit well are more likely to leave-either on their own accord or because of problems on the job. Thus, the continuous process of attraction, assimilation, and attrition over time creates a force toward a fit between the people employed in the organization at any one time and the needs and expectations of that organization.
The process is a lessthan-perfect one in the sense that it does not create a perfect fit between all employees, their work, and those with whom they work, but it does create a force toward fit.
An important component of ASA theory is the gravitational hypothesis; this hypothesis posits that over time, people will gravitate to organizations that have values, attitudes, and so on that are similar to theirs.
Empirical tests of this hypothesis have shown some support. For example, Wilk, Desmarais, and Sackett found that general cognitive ability is a good predictor of movement to jobs of higher or lower complexity 5 years later.
Schneider et al. Regarding personnel selection in the ASA context, these authors point out that if P-O fit is to be considered important, organizational diagnosis should be included in the job analysis strategy and that personality is likely to be a useful predictor of turnover and job performance because of the positive individual and organizational outcomes associated with homogeneity.
On balance, as organizational flexibility in effectively using employees is increasingly required e. We think that both models will continue to have merit. Aptitude-Treatment InteractionUsing Gough's terminology, in which aptitude represents individual difference characteristics of people and treatment is broadly defined as situations encountered by people job characteristics, working conditions, supervisors, performance goals, etc. In almost all cases, the dependent variables important to the field can be captured by individual, work group, or team performance; withdrawal behaviors such as absenteeism, turnover, or lack of attention to work; self-evaluation of the job or facets of the work setting e.
Constructs that fall into either the aptitude domain, the treatment domain, or both are always invoked, and the task becomes that of measuring these constructs validly and explaining observed relationships by attempting to account for or control variability in constructs other than the ones of interest that would provide alternative explanations for observed covariation.
Almost all past and present work in industrial and organizational psychology falls squarely within the aptitude-treatment interaction model. It has served industrial and organizational psychology well in the past and will in our opinion continue to do so-with one caveat. How it does so is relatively clear when conditions and personal characteristics are relatively sta-ble; however, the more we attempt to incorporate dynamic open systems properties into our work, the less clear is the guidance of the model.
In many cases, we have remained within the model and simply treated our research and practice using its principles and acting as if people and situations were stable.
In other cases, we treat continuous dynamic conditions as discrete events and use these events as means of dealing with time in a dynamic sense-sometimes without a very clear idea about scaling properties of the links between the discrete events over time. A comparison of the domain of issues addressed with earlier handbooks in the field shows a great deal of overlap; work continues in most of the same areas as before.
Yet such a comparison underestimates change and progress. It does so because the events of change are more specific and idiosyncratic than the broad domains that come to represent most subdisciplines of the field. Furthermore, some of the more innovative work often does not fit neatly into one content domain; rather, it spans several. Therefore, before describing the content of this volume, we introduce some of the works of the s that we believe have been particularly important for advancing the field of industrial and organizational psychology, but was not an explicit topic for any single chapter.
In doing this, we have clustered this work into research that falls squarely within the aptitude-treatment model advances by elaboration and research that has wrestled with the open systems characteristics of human behavior in organizations, in turn placing some strains on working within the aptitudetreatment framework advances through extension.
Advances by Elaboration Models of Job PerformanceA central behavior of concern in industrial and organizational psychology is that of individuals' performance on their jobs. Job performance is often the criterion that industrial and organizational psychologists attempt to predict from knowledge of characteristics of the performer and of the conditions under which the job is performed. Although it is appealing to think of performance as a unidimensional construct that varies along a single dimension from good to bad, the construct is rarely if ever that simple.
Rather, job performance is a complex, multidimensional criterion, and addressing the criterion problem is a highly important endeavor. In the s Campbell observed that although job performance plays a central role in much of industrial and organizational psychology, little had been done to develop a comprehensive theory of what is meant by job performance. He and his colleagues addressed this issue by explicating the latent variables that best characterize the performance requirements of ideally all jobs associated with work.
Five of the eight latent performance constructs emerged consistently in the Project A research a large-scale selection and classification study conducted in the U. For personnel selection especially, but more broadly for other areas of industrial and organizational psychology e.
Pulakos et al. During the s, other work continued by extending the typical model of searching for predictors of standard performance criteria-typically ratings of job performance. Work begun by using meta-analyses of relationships between cognitive ability, job knowledge, task proficiency, and overall performance ratings continued to show that cognitive ability had a direct effect on the acquisition of job knowledge.
In his path model, performance ratings were a function of both knowledge and proficiency. Each of these factors significantly increased the variance accounted for in performance ratings.
These studies, along with others, have helped identify the factors and cues that supervisors use when making summary overall performance judgments, and such research helps us to understand better the job performance construct and certain critical antecedents of performance. Project A: The U. The acknowledgment section of the final technical report listed persons who worked on the project at one stage or another.
The majority were industrial and organizational psychologists. Project A and the follow-up, the Career Forces Project Project , involved two major validation samples-one concurrent and one predictive. The Project A concurrent sample allowed for the evaluation of the validities of a wide range of predictor measures against the job performance of military personnel during their first tour of duty. A second longitudinal sample provided validation results for these same predictors against performance in training programs, first-tour job performance, and second-tour performance as a noncommissioned officer NCO supervisor.
To provide an idea of the magnitude of these validation efforts, approximately 9, soldiers participated in the first-tour concurrent validation study; roughly 45, recruits were tested at the beginning of the longitudinal validation research. Criterion data were collected on about 30, at the end of training, 10, during this cohort's first tour, and 1, during their second tour.
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Arnold B. Articles Electronic copies of articles are posted as a professional courtesy to individuals to facilitate sharing academic work for noncommercial purposes. The copyrights and all associated rights continue to reside with the copyright holders, as noted in each paper. Aw, S. Work-related helping and family functioning: A work-home resources perspective.
HANDBOOK of PSYCHOLOGY VOLUME 12 INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
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The globalized nature of work in the new millennium implies that human resource management, psychological theories of personnel and individual behaviour in the workplace have to change and evolve. This volume mainly focuses on theories, techniques and methods used by industrial and work psychologists. A set of internationally renowned authors summarize advances in core topics such as analysis of work, work design, job performance, performance appraisal and feedback, workplace counterproductivity, recruitment and personnel selection, work relevant individual difference variables cognitive ability, personality , human-machine interactions, human errors, training, learning, individual development, socialization, methods, and measurement. The goals of this chapter are to a provide an overview of measurement and the process of measure development, and b describe recent and future trends in the field of measurement in work and organizational psychology. First, we define measurement, discuss some of its benefits, and describe scales of measurement.
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