Hypertension and heart disease pdf

Posted on Tuesday, November 24, 2020 6:14:59 PM Posted by Ricardo S. - 24.11.2020 and pdf, english pdf 0 Comments

hypertension and heart disease pdf

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Published: 24.11.2020

2018 ESC/ESH Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension

In most cases, the damage done by high blood pressure HBP, or hypertension takes place over time. Left undetected or uncontrolled , high blood pressure can lead to:. When your blood pressure is too high for too long, it damages your blood vessels — and LDL bad cholesterol begins to accumulate along tears in your artery walls. This increases the workload of your circulatory system while decreasing its efficiency. As a result, high blood pressure puts you at greater risk for developing life-changing and potentially life-threating conditions. If your readings are still unusually high, contact your doctor immediately. You could be experiencing a hypertensive crisis.

Blood pressure relationship with risk of cardiovascular and renal events. Importance of hypertension-mediated organ damage in refining cardiovascular risk assessment in hypertensive patients. Advantages and disadvantages of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring. Clinical indications for out-of-office blood pressure measurements. Using hypertension-mediated organ damage to help stratify risk in hypertensive patients. Hypertension-mediated organ damage regression and cardiovascular risk reduction with antihypertensive treatment. When to refer a patient with hypertension for hospital-based care.

The heart working under increased pressure causes some different heart disorders. Hypertensive heart disease includes heart failure, thickening of the heart muscle, coronary artery disease, and other conditions. Hypertensive heart disease can cause serious health problems. The types of hypertensive heart disease include:. Coronary arteries transport blood to your heart muscle. When high blood pressure causes the blood vessels to become narrow, blood flow to the heart can slow or stop.

Pathophysiology of Hypertensive Heart Disease: Beyond Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

Metrics details. Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and death. It affects a substantial proportion of the population worldwide, and remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. Long-standing high blood pressure leads to left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction that cause an increase in myocardial rigidity, which renders the myocardium less compliant to changes in the preload, afterload, and sympathetic tone. Adequate blood pressure control must be achieved in patients with hypertension to prevent progression to overt heart failure. Controlling blood pressure is also important in patients with established heart failure, especially among those with preserved ejection fractions.

Hypertensive Heart Disease

Given that the life expectancy and the burden of hypertension are projected to increase over the next decade, hypertensive heart disease HHD may be expected to play an even more central role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease CVD. A broader understanding of the features and underlying mechanisms that constitute HHD therefore is of paramount importance. HHD is a condition that arises as a result of elevated blood pressure and constitutes a key underlying mechanism for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Historically, studies investigating HHD have primarily focused on left ventricular LV hypertrophy LVH , but it is increasingly apparent that HHD encompasses a range of target-organ damage beyond LVH, including other cardiovascular structural and functional adaptations that may occur separately or concomitantly. HHD is characterized by micro- and macroscopic myocardial alterations, structural phenotypic adaptations, and functional changes that include cardiac fibrosis, and the remodeling of the atria and ventricles and the arterial system.

Hypertension is an increasing health problem worldwide especially among the elderly. Its therapeutical importance is indicated by the caused organ damages like hypertensive heart disease HHD and heart failure with the subsequent higher morbidity and mortality in the population. In HHD ventricular hypertrophy develops as a compensatory mechanism for pressure overload but as the left ventricular compliance decreases, the process can transform into heart failure with firstly preserved and then into reduced ejection fraction HFpEF, HFrEF. The main characteristics of underlying mechanisms involve cardiomyocyte growth, vessel changes, increased collagen production in all of which several mechanical stress induced neurohumoral agents, signal transduction pathways are involved. According to the new ESC and AHA guidelines five main groups of antihypertensive agents can be applied for decreasing blood pressure and for the prevention of organ damages.

Hypertensive heart disease refers to heart problems that occur because of high blood pressure that is present over a long time. High blood pressure means the pressure inside the blood vessels called arteries is too high. As the heart pumps against this pressure, it must work harder. Over time, this causes the heart muscle to thicken. Because there are often no symptoms with high blood pressure, people can have the problem without knowing it.

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure.

Background

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Everything you need to know about hypertension

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