Kays and crawford convective heat transfer pdf
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- Kays W.M., Crawford M.E. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer
- CONVECTIVE HEAT & MASS TRANSFER 4TH EDITION
- CONVECTIVE HEAT & MASS TRANSFER 4TH EDITION
Kays W.M., Crawford M.E. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer
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Kays, M. E, Crawford — 3rd ed P. ISBN Mass transfer, 1. Crawford, M. He received his Ph. Dean of Engineering from to Professor Kays has done extensive research on. He is the author with A. London of Compact Heat Exchangers. Prior to that, he was on the faculty at MIT.
His teaching focuses on heat transfer and turbulence modeling. His research associated with development of the numerical simulation code STANS for application to high-performance gas turbine engines has earned him a international reputation in the gas turbine industry. Dr Crawford is actively involved in consulting to industry and government, and he participates in short courses on numerical methods in fluid dynamics and gas turbine cooling.
The influence of the digital computer has become even more pervasive since the personal computer came upon the scene, and today students and engineers can carry out computations at home or at their desk that 20 years ago would would have required a large main-frame computer and a well-staffed computer center. And the answer to this question is the same: the classical approach has become less important, but it has still not lost its importance.
This new edition has been prepared in response to this answer, but also in recognition of the continually growing importance of computer- based finite-difference solutions and new mathematical models, especially in the calculation of turbulent boundary layers. The rationale for this addition is that heat-exchanger analysis and design provides one of the most important applications of convective heat-transfer theory, and this is Particularly true for heat exchangers involving gases.
The authors would like to express their thanks to Kiran Kimbell for her editorial assistance in preparing the third edition. Kays M. A particular computer code was used fo generate the solutions described in Chapters 11 and 13, but since many such codes exist, and most can use the models discussed in the text, the authors are reluctant to advocate any particular code.
Please indicate on the disk whether it is the Macintosh or DOS version that is desired. Free convection on a vertical surface is also included. For the turbulent boundary layer it uses either a mixing-length model or the k-e model, and the user has the option to change any of the constants appearing in the models. Fluid properties can be either constant or temperature-dependent. The pro- perties of air and water are included with the program—property files for Other fluids can be supplied by the user.
Viscous energy dissipation is an option so that the high-velocity boundary layer can be solved. The program is extensively documented in a text file Chapters 18 and 19 describe a procedure for designing a heat exchanger.
For a heat exchanger involving gases, where the pressure drop as well as the thermal performance is of importance, the design procedure is an iterative one. The procedure can be carried out by hand calculations, but it becomes very tedious and is far better carried out by computer. These programs will carry out design calculations in a few seconds that would otherwise take 20 minutes or longer.
In calculations that also involve optimization of a heat exchanger with respect to a thermal system, hand calculation is, Virtually out of the question. To obtain these programs, send a second Macintosh formatted disk double density in a self-addressed stamped disk-mailing envelope to the same address.
Bascom Ave. This disk contains data on all of the heat-transfer surfaces described in the book Compact Heat Exchangers by W. Kays and A. Cur rently within the code the momentum sources include pressure gradient, free-convection body force, and a generalized body force. For the stagnation enthalpy equation or temperature, if low speed , the sources include viscous dissipation, body force work, and a generalized volu- metric source. For convective mass transfer, the appropriate source terms can be defined.
The tur- bulent heat-flux closure is via a turbulent Prandit or Schmidt number concept. Algebraic and full Reynolds stress models, along with turbulent heat-flux transport models, can easily be adapted to the code. TEXSTAN can handle a variety of different boundary conditions, For the energy equation, the axial variation of either the wall heat flux or the wall enthalpy may be specified. For external wall shear flows, the free-steam velocity, rather than the pressure, is treated as a variable boundary condition, and the free-stream stagnation enthalpy is held constant.
The user may specify the initial profiles of the dependent variables, or an automatic initial profile generator may be used. Constant fluid properties are user-supplied. Variable fluid properties are supplied through user-developed subroutines. The current routines include those for air at both low and elevated pressures, water, nitrogen, helium, and combustion products. Inquiries can bbe made to: Professor Michael E. The first phase was the period of almost exclusive reliance on experimental correlations of overall heat-transfer behavior, with the pertinent variables reduced to the nondimensional groupings so familiar to all heat-transfer engineers.
In the second phase the effort was increasingly to develop mathematical models of the basic Phenomena and then to deduce system behavior through mathematical reasoning, an effort which greatly expanded the ability of the analyst or designer to handle new and complex applications and which also enhanced understanding of the phenomena involved.
The large-capacity digital computer, together with new and better finite-dfference techniques, has largely removed the mathematical difficulties of handling boundary-layer flows, and this has been especially significant in the case of turbulent flows, When it was no longer necessary to make mathematical compromises, it became possible to focus attention on the basic transport mechanisms, and thus our knowledge and our ability to model the basic mechanisms have greatly improved.
It is now possible and practicable to routinely calculate both laminar and turbulent boundary layers, and tube flows, with high precision for a very wide vatiety of conditions. The authors have two answers to this question, Intelligent use of computer-based methods requires an understanding of both the basic processes and, in at least a general way, the consequences of particular sets of conditions.
This understanding is difficult to obtain when the computer is relied on exclusively. Equally important is the fact that a very high percentage of engineering heat-transfer problems do not, require the high precision and detail generally available from a computer solution, but they are problems for which quick, low-cost answers are essential. For such problems the computer-based finite-difference solu- tion is elegant, but overkill.
In this second edition the authors have retained the basic objectives of the first edition, while at the same time modernizing it and shifting emphasis where appropriate, but they have also tried to provide a theoretical frame work for finite-difference methods.
The relevant differential equations are developed, and simple turbulent transport models applicable to finite-difference procedures are discussed. Since the literature abounds with references to computer programs and model developments, the authors have tried mainly to refer to survey articles in the discussions.
The topics chosen and the depth of coverage represents a personal judgment as to what is of first importance for a mechanical, aerospace, or nuclear engineering student at about the fifth-year level.
A chapter on free convection has been added, and the discussion of the effects of surface roughness has been greatly expanded. Several chapters have been reorganized to completely separate laminar and turbulent flows, and the approach to turbulent transport processes has been drastically modified.
Because of their continuing evolution, though, higher-order turbulence closure models are not discussed. Finally, it should be emphasized that only two-dimensional boundary-layer flows are treated, and only single-phase systems are considered.
Finally, the second author would like to express his gratitude to Professor Kays for the honor and privilege of being asked to coauthor the second edition. Lastly, I would like to express appreciation to two more colleagues, Professor A. London at Stanford and Professor J. Smith, Jr, at M. During the past two decades great strides have been made in developing analytical methods of convection analysis, to the point where today experiment is assuming mote its classical role of testing the validity of theoretical models.
With this change our understanding of convection phenomena has been greatly enhanced, and wwe find ourselves in a position to handle, with confidence, problems for which experiment would be time-consuming and expensive.
This book hhas been prepared as a response to this trend.
CONVECTIVE HEAT & MASS TRANSFER 4TH EDITION
Min, T. August 1, Heat Transfer. August ; 3 : — Thermally developing laminar flow of a Bingham plastic in a circular pipe with uniform wall heat flux has been studied analytically.
Heal Mass Transfer. Abstract-For theoretical predictions of turbulent heat transfer in boundary layers and in duct flows, the knowledge of the turbulent Prandtl number is crucial. This is especially true for fluids with low molecular Prandtl nurnbers liquid metals. McGraw-Hill, New York, turbulent Prandtl number model, can he used for accurately predicting the heat transfer for liquid metal flows. The Nusselt numbers calculated with the modified model for Pr, are found to be in good agreement with experimental data for fully-developed pipe flows as well as for thermally developing pipe flows for various wall boundary conditions.
CONVECTIVE HEAT & MASS TRANSFER 4TH EDITION
As you recall from undergraduate heat transfer, there are three basic modes of transferring heat: ii Calculate the power rating of the kettle, assuming all of the electrical energy is used to heat the water. Each Section contains maximum 70 questions. Course Content. The total amount of heat transfer Q during a time interval can be determined from: Q Q dt kJ t 0, then net heat is transferred from the system to the surroundings, and the system has lost energy. Aaron Schellenberg.
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Kays W. Third edition. McGraw-Hill Science,