Nanotechnology in oil and gas industry pdf
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- Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering Review Articles
- Applications of Nanotechnology for Upstream Oil and Gas Industry
- A comprehensive review of nanoparticles applications in the oil and gas industry
- Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering Review Articles
Nanotechnology has become the buzz word of the decade! The precise manipulation and control of matter at dimensions of nanometers have revolutionized many industries including the Oil and Gas industry. Its broad impact on more than one discipline is making it of increasing interest to concerned parties.
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering Review Articles
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Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. Nanotechnology has grown rapidly in both research and applications over the past two decades including in the upstream petroleum industry. A recent hot area for studying nanotechnology has been oilfield scale management.
The formation of oilfield scale deposits such as calcium carbonate and Group II sulfate scales in conduits and on equipment, both downhole and topside, can cause serious loss of hydrocarbon production and unwanted downtime.
Scale management is expensive to the field operator, mostly due to downtime causing deferred or loss of production. Many types of nano-based materials and treatments have been developed to combat this problem, most of them containing one form or another of an organic scale inhibitor. In this review, we reviewed the various types of nanotechnologies that have been developed and include comparisons to conventional treatments where available.
The nanotechnologies include nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, polymer nanocomposites, carbon-based nanotubes, and other miscellaneous technologies. Several nanoproducts developed for squeeze treatments indicate improved squeeze lifetime compared to conventional squeeze treatments.
Other potential benefits include improved thermal stability for high-temperature wells, reduced formation damage for water-sensitive wells, and environmental impact. Figure 2. Five stages of oilfield scale inhibitor squeeze treatment. Figure 3. Classification of nanomaterials. Reproduced with permission from ref Copyright , Bentham Science Publishers. Figure 5. Agglomeration process problem of M-NPs and stabilization M-NPs with linkers such as polymers, surfactant, and ligands.
Figure 6. Reproduced with permission from ref 99 , , Copyright Royal Society of Chemistry. Figure 7. Reproduced with permission from ref 98 , , Copyright Elsevier B. Figure 8. SEM images of the calcite crystal formation.
Reproduced with permission from ref , , Copyright Elsevier B. Figure 9. Figure Reproduced with permission from ref , , Copyright Elsevier Ltd.
Cellulose-based chemicals tested for calcite scale inhibition. Modified from ref , , Copyright Society of Petroleum Engineers. Schematic diagram of the synthesis of self-assembled monolayer functionalized titanium dioxide nanotube array on titanium foil SAM-TNTAs in the presence of varying alkyl phosphonates. Reproduced with permission from ref , , Copyright American Chemical Society. Nano Mater. More by Mohamed F. More by Malcolm A. Cite this: ACS Appl.
Article Views Altmetric -. Citations 3. Abstract High Resolution Image. Water is coproduced with oil and gas during the production of crude hydrocarbons in oil-producing wells. Oilfield scaling concerns the precipitation of sparingly inorganic salts from an aqueous phase.
For example, the amount and composition of the dissolved ions play an important role in the formation of inorganic scale. The formation of mineral scale can be formed by chemical reactions in the formation water FW itself, by mixing of formation water with injected seawater SW , or from missing of the well streams of two incompatible oilfield waters.
The deposition of insoluble salts can reduce the permeability of a porous petroleum reservoir rock formation damage and cause blockages of well-bore perforations, pipelines, pumps, and valves as well as hinder the functioning of equipment such as sliding sleeves.
Inorganic scale can precipitate on almost any surface, so that scaling tends to adhere to solid surfaces, as shown in Figure 1. Once the first layer is formed, the next layers have a higher tendency to deposit, and gradually more scale layers are formed on the surface of the equipment.
Figure 1. Pipeline contaminated with inorganic scale. High Resolution Image. In general, scaling is a complex phenomenon and involves crystallization mechanisms. Also, the kinetics of the reaction plays a vital role in the degree of scaling. The inorganic scale can be formed in different crystal lattice structures. Scanning electronic microscopy SEM plays a potential role in determining the shape of inorganic deposits.
The chemical reactions and mineral names for most oilfield scales are also presented in Table 1. For example, calcium carbonate scale can be formed in different crystalline forms such as calcite and aragonite, as shown in Table 1.
It is well-known that aragonite and calcite crystals are polymorphous to each other. Although calcite and aragonite include the same chemical compounds, they differ in the crystal lattice structure. Calcite builds trigonal crystals, whereas aragonite forms orthorhombic crystals. Table 1. Common Oilfield Scales. For economic and safety considerations in the oil and gas industry, it is essential to control the formation of inorganic scale. Several ways have been discovered and reported in remediating or preventing scale deposition, thus increasing the total revenue from a reservoir.
Mechanical treatment is one of the best methods of scale removal in tubulars, either with abrasive jetting or milling. Chemical dissolution includes acid washes for removal of mainly carbonate scaling and scale dissolvers chelants for sulfate scales. SIs are low-dosage water-soluble chemicals that prevent nucleation, crystal growth, and deposition of scales in oilfield production. SIs are often used in very low concentrations in the water phase, for example, 1—50 ppm. SIs can be classified into two chemical categories: water-soluble polymers and nonpolymeric compounds.
It was well-known that phosphonate, carboxylate, and sulfonate functional groups can interact well with group II cations on the scale crystal surface. Phosphonate is known to bind the strongest of the three anions, and therefore smaller nonpolymeric molecules with usually two to six phosphonates groups can be used. In general, the plausible mechanisms of SIs for the oilfield scale are threshold nucleation and crystal growth inhibition, crystal modification, and dispersion of scale particles preventing their deposition.
Some polymeric SIs and small aminophosphonates adsorb onto the crystal surface, leading to lattice distortion of the formed crystal, thus inhibiting the crystallization.
There are several methods of applying SIs. Batch treatment, squeeze treatment, and continuous injections are important techniques used in the oil and gas industry. Figure 2 shows the principal stages of an oilfield SI squeeze treatment. SI is pumped into a water-producing area, in which the SI is connected to the formation matrix by chemical adsorption or by a precipitation process.
The return concentration of SIs with the produced fluid will be sufficiently high to avoid scale deposition. It is very important to monitor the SI concentration in the produced water when the well is put back on production. Commonly the returned SI concentration gradually decreases, until it falls below the minimum inhibitor concentration MIC that avoids scale precipitation. Therefore, it is essential to stop production before the MIC is reached and resqueeze the well to continue to prevent scale deposition.
Most squeeze SIs have at least one drawback, such as low performance, high cost, short squeeze lifetime, and various incompatibilities with the production system.
In addition, many SIs have poor biodegradability. As environmental concerns become more important, production chemicals such as SIs are increasingly scrutinized and legislated. Nanoparticle research is currently an area of intense scientific research, due to a wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, optical, environmental remediation, and electronic fields.
In many cases, this technology can be significantly cheaper and efficient to deploy than more conventional methods. He discussed the problem of manipulating and controlling things on a small scale. In some cases, the term of nanoparticle is used for larger particles, up to nm, or fibers and tubes. Nanomaterials can be classified according to their chemical composition, dimensionality, and shape.
Figure 3 shows the most common classification of nanomaterials as a function of structure type, dimension, and chemical composition. This review will present the development of nanotechnology for the inhibition of inorganic scale in the oil and gas industry. We will present an overview of different synthetic approaches to producing new scale inhibitor-based nanomaterials. Moreover, we will address the importance of nanomaterials for the improvement of oilfield SI squeeze applications.
Where available, the morphology of the scale crystal growth and scale inhibition mechanisms of nanomaterials will also be reviewed. To the best of our knowledge, this review is the first one focusing on the application of nanotechnology in oilfield scale management.
Applications of Nanotechnology for Upstream Oil and Gas Industry
Oil and Gas industry is going through a phase where there is an increased demand of energy sources particularly oil and gas and reduced production due to mature oilfields. There is a need for new technologies which can help improve production from the reservoir and develop new fields. Nanotechnology offers promising solution for the same. Nanotechnology is the study of science of materials at nanoscale which help in enhancing the performance of processes. Nanoparticles are the nanosized materials in the range of nm.
With the increased attention toward nanotechnology and their innovative use for different industries including but not limited to food, biomedical, electronics, materials, etc, the application of nanotechnology or nanoparticles in the oil and gas industry is a subject undergoing intense study by major oil companies, which is reflected through the huge amount of funds invested on the research and development, with respect to the nanotechnology. Nanotechnology has been recently investigated extensively for different applications in the oil and gas industry such as drilling fluids and enhanced oil recovery in addition to other applications including cementing and well stimulation. In this paper, comprehensive literature was conducted to review the different applications of nanotechnology in the oil and gas industry. A summary of all nanoparticles used along with a detailed analysis of their performance in improving the targeted parameters is comprehensively presented. The main objective of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of the different successful applications of nanotechnology and its associated challenges, which could be very helpful for future researches and applications. Nanotechnology has been used in different industries including but not limited to food, biomedical, electronics, materials, etc. One of these industries is the oil and gas industry, where the revolution of nanotechnology applications covered different areas in both upstream and downstream.
Nanotechnology can be used to improve the drilling process and oil and gas production by making it easier to separate oil and gas in the.
A comprehensive review of nanoparticles applications in the oil and gas industry
Мимо стремительно проплыла каталка. Беккер успел отскочить в сторону и окликнул санитара. - Dоnde esta el telefono. Не снижая скорости, мужчина указал Беккеру на двустворчатую дверь и скрылся за поворотом.
Я читал все его мозговые штурмы. Мозговые штурмы. Сьюзан замолчала.
Сначала текст воспринимается как полная бессмыслица, но по мере постижения законов построения его структуры начинает появляться смысл. Беккер понимающе кивнул, но ему хотелось знать. Используя вместо классной доски салфетки ресторана Мерлутти или концертные программы, Сьюзан дала этому популярному и очень привлекательному преподавателю первые уроки криптографии.
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering Review Articles
Стратмор пока не сказал ей, что этот ключ представляет для него отнюдь не только академический интерес. Он думал, что сможет обойтись без ее участия - принимая во внимание ее склонность к самостоятельности - и сам найдет этот ключ, но уже столкнулся с проблемами, пытаясь самостоятельно запустить Следопыта. Рисковать еще раз ему не хотелось. - Сьюзан, - в его голосе послышалась решимость, - я прошу тебя помочь мне найти ключ Хейла.
И вот Халохот уже за спиной жертвы. Как танцор, повторяющий отточенные движения, он взял чуть вправо, положил руку на плечо человеку в пиджаке цвета хаки, прицелился и… выстрелил. Раздались два приглушенных хлопка. Беккер вначале как бы застыл, потом начал медленно оседать.
Потеряв ориентацию, двигалась, вытянув перед собой руки и пытаясь восстановить в памяти очертания комнаты. Споткнулась о мусорный бачок и едва не наткнулась на кафельную стенку. Ведя рукой по прохладному кафелю, она наконец добралась до двери и нащупала дверную ручку. Дверь отворилась, и Сьюзан вышла в помещение шифровалки. Здесь она снова замерла. Все выглядело совсем не так, как несколько минут .
The Nanotechnology applications have pierced through different Petroleum disciplines from Exploration, to Reservoir, Drilling, Completion.
Время идет, старик канадец может куда-нибудь исчезнуть. Вполне вероятно, он решит поскорее вернуться в Канаду. Или надумает продать кольцо. Беккер не мог ждать. Он решительно поднял трубку, снова набрал номер и прислонился к стене.
Его так все называют. Им пользуются студенты, потому что билет стоит гроши. Сиди себе в заднем салоне и докуривай окурки. Хорошенькая картинка. Беккер застонал и провел рукой по волосам. - Когда он вылетает. - В два часа ночи по воскресеньям.
Чед? - услышал он голос у себя за спиной. Обернувшись, Бринкерхофф начал всматриваться в темноту. Мидж как ни чем не бывало стояла в приемной возле двойной двери директорского кабинета и протягивала к нему руку ладонью вверх. - Ключ, Чед. Бринкерхофф покраснел до корней волос и повернулся к мониторам.
Энсей решил пойти на собеседование. Сомнения, которые его одолевали, исчезли, как только он встретился с коммандером Стратмором. У них состоялся откровенный разговор о его происхождении, о потенциальной враждебности, какую он мог испытывать к Соединенным Штатам, о его планах на будущее.