Skin hair and nails structure and function pdf
File Name: skin hair and nails structure and function .zip
- Skin and Nail: Barrier Function, Structure, and Anatomy Considerations for Drug Delivery
- Integumentary system
- Integumentary system
- Chapter 4: The skin, hair and nails
Skin and Nail: Barrier Function, Structure, and Anatomy Considerations for Drug Delivery
The integumentary system is the set of organs forming the outermost layer of an animal's body. It comprises the skin and its appendages, acting as a physical barrier between the external environment and the internal environment that it serves to protect and maintain. The integumentary system includes hair , scales , feathers , hooves , and nails. It has a variety of additional functions; it may serve to maintain water balance, protect the deeper tissues, excrete wastes, and regulate body temperature , and is the attachment site for sensory receptors to detect pain, sensation, pressure, and temperature. The skin is one of the largest organs of the body. In humans, it accounts for about 12 to 15 percent of total body weight and covers 1. The skin integument is a composite organ, made up of at least two major layers of tissue: the epidermis and the dermis.
Drug delivery for both skin and nails is an area receiving ever-increasing attention. To effectively deliver active pharmaceutical ingredients APIs across the skin transdermal delivery or nail transungual delivery it is necessary to consider the anatomy and physiology of these barriers. With this information in hand, one can more effectively utilize drug delivery approaches to maximize the effectiveness of the API — getting the right amount to the right place at the right time. The advantages of local delivery include, among others, minimized systemic toxicity, high local drug concentrations, avoidance of first pass issues and cost. Topical delivery of systemic therapeutics also offers benefits but present a greater technical challenge. Among the benefits are first pass avoidance, convenience and sustained release.
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Accessory structures of the skin include hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. These structures embryologically originate from the epidermis and can extend down through the dermis into the hypodermis. It is primarily made of dead, keratinized cells.
Nurses need to understand the skin and its functions to identify and manage skin problems. This article comes with a self-assessment enabling you to test your knowledge after reading it. Nurses observe the skin of their patients daily and it is important they understand the skin so they can recognise problems when they arise.
Chapter 4: The skin, hair and nails
Common integument refers to skin and subcutaneous tissue, hair, nails, and breast. The last-named is described with the upper limb. The skin cutis provides a waterproof and protective covering for the body, contains sensory nerve endings, and aids in the regulation of temperature.
Written and peer-reviewed by physicians—but use at your own risk. Read our disclaimer. The skin is the largest organ of the body, covering an area of approximately 2 m 2.
It consists of three layers: the epidermis, preventing chemicals and micro-organisms entering the body, the dermis playing a role in immunological surveillance.
Learn More from the Complex Drug Delivery Experts
Understanding the skin requires knowledge of its accessory structures. This article, second in a two-part series , looks at the role of hair, nails, sweat and sebaceous glands. These originate embryologically from the epidermis and include hair, nails, sweat glands and sebaceous glands. This article, the second in a two-part series , looks at the structure and function of the main accessory structures of the skin. Citation: Lawton S Skin 2: accessory structures of the skin and their functions.
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