Modernization and dependency theory pdf
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- Dependency and world systems theories
- The Failings of Liberal Modernisation Theory
- Compare and contrast modernization and dependency theories of development
- Development theory
Modernization theory claimed that once developing societies came into contact with western European and North American societies, they would be impelled toward modernization and, eventually, would achieve the economic, political, and social features characteristic of the nations of western Europe and the United States. However, by the s it was apparent that the Third World was not passing through a stage of underdevelopment, as envisioned by modernization theory, but remaining underdeveloped. Thus, a counterclaim was advanced—that developing countries today are structurally different from the advanced countries and so will have to develop along different lines.
Dependency and world systems theories
Development theory is a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved. Such theories draw on a variety of social science disciplines and approaches. In this article, multiple theories are discussed, as are recent developments with regard to these theories. Depending on which theory that is being looked at, there are different explanations to the process of development and their inequalities. Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of 'traditional' or 'backward' societies.
While the three main sociological paradigms all help explain global stratification, there are two major theories that developed out of the structural-functional and conflict theories that are best positioned to explain global inequality: modernization theory and dependency theory. Modernization theory posits that countries go through evolutionary stages and that industrialization and improved technology are the keys to forward progress. Dependency theory, on the other hand, sees modernization theory as Eurocentric and patronizing. According to dependency theory, global inequality is the result of core nations creating a cycle of dependence by exploiting resources and labor in peripheral and semi-peripheral countries. Modernization theory comes out of the structural-functional viewpoint, as it frames inequality as a function of industrial and cultural differences between nations. According to modernization theory, low-income countries are affected by their lack of industrialization and can improve their global economic standing through Armer and Katsillis :. Critics point out the inherent ethnocentric bias of this theory.
The Failings of Liberal Modernisation Theory
In this paper I am going to describe some essential points of dependency theory. Its history, its principles, perspective and critics of dependency theory is to be the focus points of the study. First of all, dependency theory is the study of world perception. The historical background of the theory is traced to mid twentieth century beginning with works of Paul Prebisch in Economic Commission in Latin America under United Nations. Prebisch concluded that the global economic relations, the role of international institutions and their missions do not perpetuate equal consequences for both developing and developed nations. Actually this global transactions further increase the dominant power and capacity of developed states, enabling them to further dominate developing nations and keeping them in dependent position. Dependency theory in this perspective calls up history, further giving attention to colonial period relations, thus basing its core perception to historical exploitative relations among dominant civilized and dependent uncivilized nations.
A macro-theory with historical, economic and sociological inspiration, modernisation theory seeks to establish how different societies progress, which variables affect this progress, and the effects of societal progress on human communication. Furthermore, many theorists in the field have examined how modernisation processes, especially economic growth, relate to democratisation and democratic consolidation Huntington A recurring theme, therefore, in modernisation theory is the opinion that globalisation and international connectedness lead to a consensus that the most desirable systems for modernisation are liberal democratisation and Western models of capitalist development Johannessen 6. Liberal modernisation theorists see modernisation as a lengthy, irreversible, and complex evolutionary process that completely transforms a society. Rostow presented a definitive account of how countries evolve in order to become modern, claiming that there were five stages of development. This is achieved, according to most modernisation theorists, including Rostow, through the introduction of material forces such as capital and investment from the West, the acceptance of Western institutions such as the nuclear family and democratic establishments, and the export of manufactured goods to the West Rostow Modernisation theory can quite obviously be criticised from a neo-modernist or Marxist viewpoint as Western-centric.
Compare and contrast modernization and dependency theories of development
Welcome to sociological studies. Got a great lesson. We're going to cover modernization theory as opposed to dependency theory. Both theoretical explanations of global inequality. Modernization theory, we'll start there, was developed by Walt Whitman Rostow, or W.
Но я думаю, что одно с другим может быть связано самым непосредственным образом. Сьюзан отказывалась его понимать. - Это долгая история. Она повернулась к монитору и показала на работающего Следопыта.
Чатрукьян еще раз обвел глазами пустую лабораторию и нахмурился. - Где же он, черт возьми. Глядя на оживающий монитор, он подумал, известно ли Стратмору, что в лаборатории систем безопасности нет ни души. Подходя к шифровалке, он успел заметить, что шторы кабинета шефа задернуты.
- Максимальное время, которое ТРАНСТЕКСТ когда-либо тратил на один файл, составляет три часа. Это включая диагностику, проверку памяти и все прочее. Единственное, что могло бы вызвать зацикливание протяженностью в восемнадцать часов, - это вирус.
- Мне необходимо решение. Или мы начинаем отключение, или же мы никогда этого не сделаем. Как только эти два агрессора увидят, что Бастион пал, они издадут боевой клич. Фонтейн ничего не ответил, погруженный в глубокое раздумье.
Вот. Он печально на нее посмотрел. - Мидж… у меня нет никакой жизни. Она постучала пальцем по кипе документов: - Вот твоя жизнь, Чед Бринкерхофф. - Но, посмотрев на него, смягчилась.
Где она? - Сердце Беккера неистово колотилось. - Пошел к черту. - У меня неотложное дело! - рявкнул Беккер. Он схватил парня за рукав. - У нее кольцо, которое принадлежит. Я готов заплатить. Очень .