Micro and macro functions of language pdf
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- Micro and macro linguistics pdf
- Micro and macro functions of language pdf
- Language Functions
- [UPDATED]: Five Functions of Language
Micro and macro linguistics pdf
I would also like to thank all those who supported and encouraged me during my times of frustration. I would like also to express my sincere gratitude to both; my mother and father for their patience and prayers. My thanks are also due to my brothers and sisters for their continuous encouragement and support.
I am also indebted to my country, Libya, for supporting me financially during my studies at the University of Leeds. Finally, I would like to thank all the members of staff at the University of Leeds, for their kindness. This dissertation dealt with 'situationality'. After a couple of years, there was a need to explore other aspects of translation.
This study investigates the role of micro and macro levels in the translation of a sample of Modern Standard Arabic proverbs into English. These proverbs may not be understood if a translation focuses on the micro level, i. Therefore, the solution suggested in this study is to translate their micro levels as well as their macro surroundings in order to convey their meaning to speakers of English. To achieve these aims, twenty Modern Standard Arabic proverbs were selected on the grounds that they deal with various subjects and are widely used in Arab culture.
A randomly chosen sample of fourth-year students from the Department of English at Benghazi University were asked to translate these proverbs into English and their translations were then analysed at micro and macro levels. At the micro level, three main types of errors were identified: semantic, syntactic and stylistic.
The study found that most of the students in the sample faced difficulties when asked to translate proverbs from their mother tongue into English. During this analysis, deficiencies in translation skills were identified and evaluated, and appropriate translations by native English speakers were provided to show alternative translations of these proverbs.
At the macro level, a number of problems relating to student translations of the context of the proverbs were identified. The study recommends that translation of this feature is necessary in order to convey their meaning to English native speakers. The study shows that when the situation and context for a proverb are not provided, it becomes meaningless and difficult to comprehend.
It should be noted that the material produced by students in the sample was not transliterated to maintain confidentiality. In addition, I realised that translation methods were not included in their programme of study. The only elements they covered dealt with the history of translation and an introduction to translation, which focused on popular theories of translation.
Consequently, when students are presented with cultural texts, most of them are incapable of dealing with specific terms. Modern Standard Arabic proverbs are one of the cultural signs that cause confusion for students of translation.
Some of the proverbs have archaic Arabic proverbs that students fail to understand their meaning. Such Arabic proverbs are important and are considered to be widespread phenomena, being commonly used in the media and by the press, in films, TV series, documentaries, etc. How can they overcome the problems posed by translating high register Arabic words? How do they cope with the settings of these Modern Standard Arabic proverbs?
These are important issues which merit investigation. In addition, the problems associated with the translation of Arabic proverbs are common, with students needing special skills and strategies to render these appropriately from Arabic into English.
Modern Standard Arabic proverbs are difficult to translate into English due to the fact that the two languages vary considerably in terms of genre and culture. This work focuses on the analysis of a sample of Arabic proverbs which have slipped out of common usage in recent time and will mainly discuss the translation of these proverbs into English. It is clear from some of the previous work on the translation of proverbs that in general most researchers resort to using particular approaches when rendering proverbs from one language into another without paying attention to the macro level of the proverb, i.
It goes without saying that proverbs differ from one culture into another due to the disparities between them in terms of their environment and social norms.
For this reason, it is extremely difficult to find an equivalent proverb in the target language and culture. For this reason, the translation of Modern Standard Arabic proverbs not only requires explanation at the micro level, but also in terms of their macro setting, i. The study will also address the following objectives: - To explore a range of approaches to translation, and determine their usefulness with regard to translating MSAPs.
What problems do translation students at Benghazi University in Libya encounter when translating proverbs in terms of their setting and other features of textuality? To what extent can micro and macro levels communicate the intended meaning of a given text?
And what is their importance? What kinds of strategies do students employ to render these proverbs? What disadvantages do various translation approaches have when rendering MSAPs? How can translators deal with these? Is it sufficient for micro levels only to be applied when translating these proverb?
The study is also designed to: - Contribute to the discourse analysis of proverbs by providing a micro and macro analysis of the chosen proverbs. Chapter Two focuses on Language, Culture and Translation. After presenting various definitions of translation and an overview of its history, the chapter proceeds to clarify the relationship between language and culture.
Translators and trainees will invariably face translation problems when translating from one culture into another and these issues are discussed in detail in the translation and culture sections 2.
Definitions of proverbs proposed by various scholars will be described and thoroughly critiqued, accompanied by the inclusion of some illustrative examples. This chapter also clarifies the difference between proverbs, metaphors and idioms which can be a source of confusion for readers. Finally, some previous studies regarding the translation of proverbs will be analysed and examined in terms of their usefulness to the field of proverb translation.
Chapter Three discusses in detail four of the most well-known translation theories which will be assessed in terms of their shortcomings as well as their usefulness to academic translation studies. These four approaches are: 1 linguistic theory Catford ; 2 formal and dynamic theory Nida ; 3 semantic and communicative theory Newmark ; and 4 the text-linguistic model Beaugrande de and Dressler.
Chapter Four is dedicated to the problems that can occur when translating a text at micro and macro levels. It will start by evaluating and analysing translation problems which occur at the micro level such as syntax, semantics and stylistics. This is followed by a discussion of the problems that occur at the micro level such as situation, context and setting. Finally, a detailed review of all the previous studies on the translation of proverbs is provided, in relation to the topic of this study.
The final part of the chapter concentrates on data analysis, beginning with the analysis of the MSAPs used in the study. These are analysed individually and their settings examined. This book was chosen because it is rich in MSAPs, which are provided along with the situation in which they occur and the context in which they are used. Many authors and scholars of Arabic linguistics have contributed to this work, including Prof.
Adel Anbuba, a professor of natural science, who spent many years collecting the materials for this book, and many other well-known Arab authors ibid. However, before describing the data itself and how it was collected, it is useful to provide some background information about the University of Benghazi. It is worth mentioning that the same book was used in my MA Dissertation in See AL-Darraji It was established on the 15th of December , and was originally known as the Libyan University.
Initially only 31 students were enrolled in the Faculty of Arts and Education, which was the core of the Libyan University. In , the University of Libya was divided into two independent universities, namely the University of Al-Fatah and the University of Garyounis.
The library at the University of Garyounis in Benghazi contains , publications, including some of the official documents of the Arab League. In , the National Library in Benghazi held 14, volumes of science and arts periodicals. The study participants were aged between twenty and thirty years and consisted of both males and females. Fourth-year translation students were selected to undertake the tests because they were expected to be more competent in both English and Arabic.
Although their language ability and competence was not tested, I expected them to have an advanced level of English and a high level of Arabic since they were in their fourth year.
Teachers in preparatory and secondary schools resort to translating certain phrases into Arabic, to a greater or lesser extent, in order to clarify meaning. We should also not overlook the role of the Internet, since many young Libyans surf the Internet on a daily basis, using social networking websites such as Facebook and Twitter. All these factors greatly assist in supporting their English ability. The reason for not choosing students at an earlier stage of their university career is that they are still being taught English skills such as reading, writing, speaking, English literature, composition, criticism, translation theory, etc.
They are therefore still learning how to use these skills in English. Another relevant factor is that staff members sometimes adopt different approaches and syllabuses in teaching translation leading to a lack of consistency in terms of exposure. However, in the fourth year, students are mainly taught to render from their native Arabic language into English. Consequently, their translations are expected to be more consistent than those of students who are in the first, second or third year of university.
Students had one week to render these MSAPs into English which was believed to be sufficient time for them to complete the translations. Students were firmly requested not to consult professional translators or teachers of Arabic and were asked to rely solely on their own competence. In order to facilitate the analysis, the participants were allocated a number from 1 to 20 and then simply referred to as student 1, student 2, student 3, etc. Following analysis of the student responses, results were categorized and calculated in terms of percentages.
Twenty MSAPs, selected from the book mentioned above, were chosen for the purposes of this study because they have been used for centuries, have undergone only minor changes over time, and are still frequently used by speakers of Arabic. In addition, they were selected because they are commonly used throughout the Arab world, in the Arabic media and culture, and they also deal with significant issues which are widely experienced in most of the Arab world.
Micro and macro functions of language pdf
Well, Raheema was the woman to whom it happened. So it is highly unlikely that Usman is a carpenter. Furthermore, the crow is black. Therefore anyone in the room could have been the culprit. However, it is not clear how the sequence makes sense at least not from the piece of the discourse available here.
macro- concept. The micro-functionsare those that a child learns in the early stages of language development. At the beginning; function is equivalent to use for.
The 2. The 3. The 4. The ideational function interpersonal function poetic function textual function.
Language is the most important tool of communication invented by human civilization.
[UPDATED]: Five Functions of Language
Due to their diversity the functions of language might be divided into two categories: micro functions which refer to specific individual uses, and macro functions. The main aim of Unit 28 is to examine the main linguistic macrofunctions to express the most usual communicative intentionsthat is, first, iniciating and maintaining social relationship; second, giving and asking for information about objects, people and actions; and finally, to express emotional and intellectual attitudes. Our aim is to offer a broad account in descriptive terms of the notion of linguistic macrofunctions and its importance in society, and especially, in the language teaching community, from its origins to present-day studies. This presentation will start by offering the most relevant bibliography in this field as a reference for the reader, and by presenting our study in seven chapters. Chapter 2 will offer a brief introduction to the notion of macrofunction.
Micro-and macro-dimensions in linguistic systems Nicholas. What was Labov about? Why did he write? It seems that he wanted to construct a "map" of the differential distribution of social dialects or grammars throughout an entire social system. I take this to mean that grammars of English are open to, Micro-and macro-dimensions in linguistic systems of these possibilities assume "languages" as the basic unit of analysis of the process. It is assumed that it is "the language" which has innovated, or.
Using a language as a primary means of communicating our thoughts is so natural for many people that it is often difficult to realize what in fact are language functions. Some of the roles of language are so mundane that they are hardly ever noticed, others are very elevated, or even abstract. Due to their diversity the functions of language might be divided into two categories: micro functions which refer to specific individual uses, and macro functions which serve more overall aims. Although it might be striking this use of language is fairly common. It is easily recognizable when devoted fans of sports are observed while watching their favourite discipline on TV. Such fans often shout instructions, express support, or disappointment and while as a means of communicating with sportsmen they are useless, such cheers are to release repressed energy. Similarly curse words are used to serve this purpose, as they rarely convey any meaning and are only to make the speaker feel better.
The main aim of Unit 28 is to examine the main linguistic macrofunctions to express the most usual communicative intentions , that is, first, iniciating and maintaining social relationship; second, giving and asking for information about objects, people and actions; and finally, to express emotional and intellectual attitudes. Our aim is to offer a broad account in descriptive terms of the notion of linguistic macrofunctions and its importance in society, and especially, in the language teaching community, from its origins to present-day studies. This presentation will start by offering the most relevant bibliography in this field as a reference for the reader, and by presenting our study in seven chapters. Chapter 2 will offer a brief introduction to the notion of macrofunction. Therefore, key concepts and relevant theories related to linguistic macrofunctions will be under revision, such as first, 1 the notions of communication and language; 2 the main theories on language functions from a linguistic, pragmatic and socio-cultural point of view; and finally we shall establish 3 a typology of macrolinguistic functions which shall lead us directly to the analysis of each item.
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