Male and female reproductive system parts and functions pdf

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male and female reproductive system parts and functions pdf

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Female reproductive system

The female reproductive system is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring. In humans, the female reproductive system is immature at birth and develops to maturity at puberty to be able to produce gametes , and to carry a foetus to full term.

The internal sex organs are the uterus , Fallopian tubes , and ovaries. The uterus or womb accommodates the embryo which develops into the foetus.

The uterus also produces vaginal and uterine secretions which help the transit of sperm to the Fallopian tubes. The ovaries produce the ova egg cells. The external sex organs are also known as the genitals and these are the organs of the vulva including the labia , clitoris , and vaginal opening. The vagina is connected to the uterus at the cervix.

At certain intervals , the ovaries release an ovum , which passes through the Fallopian tube into the uterus. If, in this transit, it meets with sperm, a single sperm 1-cell can enter and merge with the egg or ovum 1-cell , fertilizing it into a zygote 1-cell. Fertilization usually occurs in the Fallopian tubes and marks the beginning of embryogenesis.

The zygote will then divide over enough generations of cells to form a blastocyst , which implants itself in the wall of the uterus. This begins the period of gestation and the embryo will continue to develop until full-term. When the foetus has developed enough to survive outside the uterus , the cervix dilates and contractions of the uterus propel the newborn through the birth canal the vagina. The corresponding equivalent among males is the male reproductive system. The vulva consists of all of the external parts and tissues and includes the mons pubis , pudendal cleft , labia majora , labia minora , Bartholin's glands , clitoris , and vaginal opening.

The vagina is a fibromuscular made up of fibrous and muscular tissue canal leading from the outside of the body to the cervix of the uterus or womb. It is also referred to as the birth canal in the context of pregnancy. The vagina accommodates the male penis during sexual intercourse. Semen containing spermatozoa is ejaculated from the male at orgasm , into the vagina potentially enabling fertilization of the egg cell ovum to take place. The cervix is the neck of the uterus, the lower, narrow portion where it joins with the upper part of the vagina.

It is cylindrical or conical in shape and protrudes through the upper anterior vaginal wall. Approximately half its length is visible, the remainder lies above the vagina beyond view. The vagina has a thick layer outside and it is the opening where the fetus emerges during delivery.

The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ. The uterus provides mechanical protection, nutritional support, and waste removal for the developing embryo weeks 1 to 8 and fetus from week 9 until the delivery.

In addition, contractions in the muscular wall of the uterus are important in pushing out the fetus at the time of birth. The uterus contains three suspensory ligaments that help stabilize the position of the uterus and limits its range of movement. The uterosacral ligaments keep the body from moving inferiorly and anteriorly. The round ligaments restrict posterior movement of the uterus.

The cardinal ligaments also prevent the inferior movement of the uterus. The uterus is a pear-shaped muscular organ. Its major function is to accept a fertilized ovum which becomes implanted into the endometrium , and derives nourishment from blood vessels which develop exclusively for this purpose.

The fertilized ovum becomes an embryo , develops into a fetus and gestates until childbirth. If the egg does not embed in the wall of the uterus, a female begins menstruation. The Fallopian tubes are two tubes leading from the ovaries into the uterus. On maturity of an ovum, the follicle and the ovary's wall rupture, allowing the ovum to escape and enter the Fallopian tube.

There it travels toward the uterus, pushed along by movements of cilia on the inner lining of the tubes. This trip takes hours or days. If the ovum is fertilized while in the Fallopian tube, then it normally implants in the endometrium when it reaches the uterus, which signals the beginning of pregnancy. The fallopian tubes made up of cillated [ check spelling ] columnar epithelium tissues. The ovaries are small, paired organs located near the lateral walls of the pelvic cavity.

These organs are responsible for the production of the egg cells ova and the secretion of hormones. The process by which the egg cell ovum is released is called ovulation. The speed of ovulation is periodic and impacts directly to the length of a menstrual cycle. After ovulation, the egg cell is captured by the Fallopian tube, after traveling down the Fallopian tube to the uterus, occasionally being fertilized on its way by an incoming sperm. During fertilization the egg cell plays a role; it releases certain molecules that are essential to guiding the sperm and allows the surface of the egg to attach to the sperm's surface.

The egg can then absorb the sperm and fertilization can then begin. The reproductive tract or genital tract is the lumen that starts as a single pathway through the vagina, splitting up into two lumens in the uterus, both of which continue through the Fallopian tubes, and ending at the distal ostia that open into the abdominal cavity.

In the absence of fertilization, the ovum will eventually traverse the entire reproductive tract from the fallopian tube until exiting the vagina through menstruation.

The reproductive tract can be used for various transluminal procedures such as fertiloscopy , intrauterine insemination , and transluminal sterilization. Chromosome characteristics determine the genetic sex of a fetus at conception. This is specifically based on the 23rd pair of chromosomes that is inherited.

Since the mother's egg contains an X chromosome and the father's sperm contains either an X or Y chromosome , it is the male who determines the fetus's sex. If the fetus inherits the X chromosome from the father, the fetus will be a female. The clitoris is the remnants of the Wolffian duct.

On the other hand, if the fetus inherits the Y chromosome from the father, the fetus will be a male. Vaginitis is inflammation of the vagina and largely caused by an infection. It is the most common gynaecological condition presented. Vaginitis is not necessarily caused by a sexually transmitted infection as there are many infectious agents that make use of the close proximity to mucous membranes and secretions. Vaginitis is usually diagnosed based on the presence of vaginal discharge, which can have a certain color, odor, or quality.

This is a vaginal infection in women. It differs from vaginitis in that there is no inflammation. Bacterial vaginosis is polymicrobial, consisting of many bacteria species. The diagnosis for bacterial vaginosis is made if three of the following four criteria are present: 1 Homogenous, thin discharge, 2 a pH of 4. It has been associated with an increased risk of other genital tract infections such as endometritis.

Yeast infections are caused by an overgrowth of fungus in the vagina known as Candida. Yeast infections are usually caused by an imbalance of the pH in the vagina, which is usually acidic.

Other factors such as pregnancy, diabetes, weakened immune systems, tight fitting clothing, or douching can also be a cause. Symptoms of yeast infections include itching, burning, irritation, and a white cottage-cheese-like discharge from the vagina. Women have also reported that they experience painful intercourse and urination as well. Taking a sample of the vaginal secretions and placing them under a microscope for evidence of yeast can diagnose a yeast infection.

Treatment varies from creams that can be applied in or around the vaginal area to oral tablets that stop the growth of fungus. There are many practices of mutilating female genitalia in different cultures.

The most common two types of genital mutilation practiced are clitoridectomy , the circumcision of the clitoris and the excision of the prepuce the skin around the clitoris.

They can all involve a range of adverse health consequences such as bleeding , irreparable tissue damage, and sepsis which can sometimes prove fatal. Genitoplasty refers to surgery that is carried out to repair damaged sex organs particularly following cancer and its treatment. There are also elective surgical procedures which change the appearance of the external genitals.

There are many types of birth control available to females. Birth control can be hormonal or physical in nature. Oral contraception can assist with management of various medical conditions, such as menorrhagia. The International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics was founded in to promote the well-being of women particularly in raising the standards of gynaecological practice and care.

As of there were countries involved. Reproductive rights are legal rights related to reproduction and reproductive health. Women have the right to control matters involving their sexuality including their sexual and reproductive health.

Violation of these rights include forced pregnancy , forced sterilization , forced abortion and genital mutilation. Female genital mutilation is the complete or partial removal of a female's external genitals.

It is claimed in the Hippocratic writings that both males and females contribute their seed to conception; otherwise, children would not resemble either or both of their parents. Four-hundred years later, Galen "identified" the source of 'female semen' as the ovaries in female reproductive organs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This article is about the reproductive system in human females. For the reproductive system in human males, see human male reproductive system. For the female reproductive systems of other animals, see reproductive system. Reproductive system of human females. Main article: Vulva. Main article: Vagina.

Reproductive System: Facts, Functions & Diseases

The female reproductive system consists of both internal and external parts. It has several important functions, including:. But what are the individual parts of the female reproductive system, and what do they do? Continue reading as we discuss these questions and more below. The vulva actually includes many different structures, such as the:. The opening of the vagina is found in the vestibule of the vulva. The vagina itself is a muscular tube that extends from this opening to the lower part of the uterus cervix.

The human reproductive system functions to produce human offspring, with the male providing sperm and the female providing the ovum. While the ultimate purpose of the human reproductive system is to produce offspring, the proximate purpose is to produce pleasure and induce bonding. This can be seen in our closest relatives, the bonobo chimpanzees, who have sex for a wide variety of reasons including pleasure, bonding, and alleviating tension in addition to producing offspring. The reproductive system or genital system is a set of organs within an organism that work together to produce offspring. Many non-living substances, such as fluids, hormones, and pheromones, are important accessories to the reproductive system. Unlike most organ systems, the sexes of differentiated species often have significant differences.


List the major components of the male reproductive system and their general functions. Explain the functions of the seminiferous tubules, sustentacular cells and Male and female reproductive systems are a series of glands and tubes that.


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These organs do the following jobs within your body:. The male reproductive system is made up of internal inside your body and external outside your body parts. Together, these organs help you urinate rid your body of liquid waste materials , have sexual intercourse and make children. Most of the male reproductive system is located outside of your abdominal cavity or pelvis. The external parts of the male reproductive system include the penis, the scrotum and the testicles.

Human reproductive system

Male Reproductive System

The reproductive system is a collection of internal and external organs — in both males and females — that work together for the purpose of procreating, according to the Cleveland Clinic. Due to its vital role in the survival of the species, many scientists argue that the reproductive system is among the most important systems in the entire body. The male reproductive system consists of two major parts: the testes, where sperm are produced, and the penis, according to Merck Manuals. The penis and urethra belong to both the urinary and reproductive systems in males. The testes are carried in an external pouch known as the scrotum, where they normally remain slightly cooler than body temperature to facilitate sperm production. The external structures of the female reproductive system include the clitoris, labia minora, labia majora and Bartholin's glands, according to the Cleveland Clinic. The major internal organs of the female reproductive system include the vagina and uterus — which act as the receptacle for semen — and the ovaries, which produce the female's ova.

The male reproductive system includes external penis, scrotum, epididymus, and testes and internal accessory organs. These external structures are the penis, scrotum, epididymis, and testes. Male Reproductive System : Lateral view of male reproductive system with organs labeled. The penis is the male organ for sexual intercourse and urination. Semen and urine leave the penis through the urethra.

The female reproductive system is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring. In humans, the female reproductive system is immature at birth and develops to maturity at puberty to be able to produce gametes , and to carry a foetus to full term. The internal sex organs are the uterus , Fallopian tubes , and ovaries. The uterus or womb accommodates the embryo which develops into the foetus. The uterus also produces vaginal and uterine secretions which help the transit of sperm to the Fallopian tubes. The ovaries produce the ova egg cells.

26.1A: Overview of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems

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Human reproductive system , organ system by which humans reproduce and bear live offspring. Provided all organs are present, normally constructed, and functioning properly, the essential features of human reproduction are 1 liberation of an ovum , or egg , at a specific time in the reproductive cycle, 2 internal fertilization of the ovum by spermatozoa, or sperm cells, 3 transport of the fertilized ovum to the uterus , or womb, 4 implantation of the blastocyst, the early embryo developed from the fertilized ovum, in the wall of the uterus, 5 formation of a placenta and maintenance of the unborn child during the entire period of gestation , 6 birth of the child and expulsion of the placenta, and 7 suckling and care of the child, with an eventual return of the maternal organs to virtually their original state. For this biological process to be carried out, certain organs and structures are required in both the male and the female. The source of the ova the female germ cells is the female ovary ; that of spermatozoa the male germ cells is the testis. In females, the two ovaries are situated in the pelvic cavity; in males, the two testes are enveloped in a sac of skin, the scrotum , lying below and outside the abdomen. Besides producing the germ cells, or gametes , the ovaries and testes are the source of hormones that cause full development of secondary sexual characteristics and also the proper functioning of the reproductive tracts. These tracts comprise the fallopian tubes , the uterus , the vagina , and associated structures in females and the penis , the sperm channels epididymis, ductus deferens , and ejaculatory ducts , and other related structures and glands in males.

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