Electromagnetic spectrum and typical applications pdf

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electromagnetic spectrum and typical applications pdf

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The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Light waves across the electromagnetic spectrum behave in similar ways. When a light wave encounters an object, they are either transmitted, reflected, absorbed, refracted, polarized, diffracted, or scattered depending on the composition of the object and the wavelength of the light. Specialized instruments onboard NASA spacecraft and airplanes collect data on how electromagnetic waves behave when they interact with matter. These data can reveal the physical and chemical composition of matter. Reflection is when incident light incoming light hits an object and bounces off.

In this module we examine how electromagnetic waves are classified into categories such as radio, infrared, ultraviolet, and so on, so that we can understand some of their similarities as well as some of their differences. We will also find that there are many connections with previously discussed topics, such as wavelength and resonance. A brief overview of the production and utilization of electromagnetic waves is found in Table There are many types of waves, such as water waves and even earthquakes. Among the many shared attributes of waves are propagation speed, frequency, and wavelength.

16.6: The Electromagnetic Spectrum

In physics , radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium. Radiation is often categorized as either ionizing or non-ionizing depending on the energy of the radiated particles. Ionizing radiation carries more than 10 eV , which is enough to ionize atoms and molecules and break chemical bonds. This is an important distinction due to the large difference in harmfulness to living organisms. Other sources include X-rays from medical radiography examinations and muons , mesons , positrons, neutrons and other particles that constitute the secondary cosmic rays that are produced after primary cosmic rays interact with Earth's atmosphere.

Tour of the Electromagnetic Spectrum

This paper presents an electromagnetic radiation-based method to qualitatively assess mine-induced stress field at the longwall face. We first analyze the correlation between electromagnetic EM signals and stress, and then measure the signals and drilling bits in both the strike and dip directions at the working face of Nuodong Coal Mine, China, which indirectly verifies this method. Results show that there is a positive correlation between EM intensity and stress.

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The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from the shorter wavelengths including gamma and x-rays to the longer wavelengths including microwaves and broadcast radio waves. There are several regions of the electromagnetic spectrum which are useful for remote sensing. For most purposes, the ultraviolet or UV portion of the spectrum has the shortest wavelengths which are practical for remote sensing. This radiation is just beyond the violet portion of the visible wavelengths, hence its name. Some Earth surface materials, primarily rocks and minerals, fluoresce or emit visible light when illuminated by UV radiation.

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