Microwave photonics from components to applications and systems pdf
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- Introduction to Photonics: Principles and the Most Recent Applications of Microstructures
- Microwave Photonics
- Wiley – IEEEMicrowave Photonics Devices And Applications0470848545, 9780470848548
- Microwave Photonics: from Components to Applications and Systems
Introduction to Photonics: Principles and the Most Recent Applications of Microstructures
By Mikhail E. In this chapter, with the goal to recover an optimal mean for computer-aided modeling and simulating a newer class of microwave-photonics-based radio electronic apparatuses, a number of comparative simulation experiments for the basic microwave band electronic devices and systems using well-known software tools referred to photonic design automation or upgraded electronic design automation platforms are carried out.
As a result, it is shown that exploiting the software of upgraded electronic design automation platform provides significantly better accuracy of calculations for the devices and systems of this class. Modeling and Simulation in Engineering - Selected Problems. Initially, MWP was an area of interest for a military platform [ 2 , 3 ] such as radar and electronic warfare means, but recent years, it became an object of study and development for emerging areas in the telecommunication industry [ 4 ] such as fifth-generation 5G cellular networks.
For today, MWP technology might be considered as a perspective direction of modern radio electronics for signal generation, transmission, and processing in various radio frequency RF circuits and systems of microwave MW band.
Implementation of this concept will enhance the key technical and economical features and such important characteristics as electromagnetic and environmental compatibilities, immunity to external interferences. Elaborating the direction, in this chapter, we review shortly the distinctive features of MWP technique, preselecting an optimal software to computer-aided design CAD , a hybrid device combining microwave electronics and photonics components. After that, we highlight our last modeling and simulation results on design and optimization of advanced microwave and millimeter-wave band RF electronic facilities based on MWP technique, mainly for an access network of 5G mobile communication systems.
In particular, Section 2 reviews the nature, features, and space of the MWP approach to develop advanced radio electronics apparatuses REAs. In addition, Section 3 presents a short comparative analysis of modern computer platforms with the goal of selecting a feasible mean to design MWP-based REA.
The examples for comparative computer-aided simulations of key optical and optoelectronics elements, such as laser, optical modulator, photodetector, and optical fiber, as well as based on them specific MWP devices and apparatuses for microwave-signal processing in optical range such as a delay circuit, oscillator, frequency converter, and fiber-wireless fronthaul of 5G mobile communication system, are demonstrated in Section 4.
Finally, Section 5 concludes the chapter. Microwave photonics is a rather fresh interdisciplinary scientific-technical and scientific-technological direction of radio electronics and photonics, which provides an increase in the efficiency of the formation and processing of analog and digital radio signals due to their transfer to the optical range.
The use of MWP in promising radio facilities for various purposes has the potential, first, from the point of view of increasing operating frequencies up to tens of terahertz, ensuring their multirange, multifunctionality, reconfigurability, and increasing speed and throughput in accordance with modern requirements. Another purpose of MWP is to improve the performance characteristics of existing REAs such as instantaneous bandwidth, electromagnetic compatibility, power consumption, reliability, resistance to natural and intentional interference, footprint, and environmental friendliness.
Generally, MWP devices are the examples of an intimate integration of photonics, microwave electronics, and planar antenna technologies for producing a complicated functional module in a multichannel analog environment.
In particular, MWP technology opens the way to superwide bandwidth transmitting characteristics at lower size, weight, and power as compared with traditional electronic information and communication systems [ 2 , 3 ]. For example, it is expected that this direction will find wide application in the RF equipment for accessing networks of incoming mobile communication systems with distribution in the millimeter-wave range [ 4 , 17 ]. Between the interfaces, there are various photonics processing units for transmission, switching, distribution, filtration, time delaying, amplification, and frequency conversion of microwave signals in optical domain.
In the process of design, a developer of new MWP-based REA is facing a problem of choosing an appropriate software tool. So today, to solve the problems of successful introducing MWP technique to the next-generation REAs, their individual units, and devices, there are various PDA-based CAD systems that allow creating complex models of varying difficulty.
In general terms, all specialized CAD systems can be divided into a group for the structural design of optical linear and nonlinear media on various materials and a group for system modeling, in which individual devices are introduced as closed models with a set of specific characteristics. Following it, currently, some commercial CAD systems have been developed for modeling optical and optoelectronic devices and systems based on PDA platform.
However, our design experience in such OE-CAD systems clearly showed that they are most applicable for modeling complex apparatuses and systems, rather than individual device. In particular, the models of optical and optoelectronic components studied below are presented in the VPI-PDS tool in the form of ready-made library models with a very limited number of parameters necessary for their development.
Therefore, based on this software, it is impossible to carry out detailed modeling of their functioning. To overcome this serious drawback, we almost 10 years ago proposed a different approach using a device-oriented MW-CAD tool [ 5 ], which was subsequently expanded in Ref.
Its essence is that the optimal solution to the problem of modeling MWP components and MWP-based devices according to the criteria of accuracy and time-of-decision should be based on a rational combination of structural [in the form of an physical equivalent circuit FEC ] and structureless models when the response of the device is described in frequency, temporal, and spatial areas based on external input and output characteristics of circuit elements.
The effectiveness of this approach, called end-to-end multiscale design, has been confirmed experimentally, for example, when modeling optoelectronic devices with a MW passband [ 21 ]. The tool helps designers manage complex integrated circuit IC , package, and printed-circuit board modeling, simulation, and verification, addressing all aspects of circuit behavior to achieve optimal performance and reliable results for first-pass success.
The unique AWRDE tool features are the following: Unified design capture provides front-to-back physical design flow with dynamically linked electrical and layout design entry. Design flow supports complex hierarchical projects with parameterized subcircuits for easy optimization and tuning. Interoperability with industry-standard tools enables the exchange of design data for schematic or netlist import, bidirectional EM cosimulation, electrical or design rule check, and production-ready export.
Additionally, powerful yield analysis and optimization address manufacturing tolerances for more robust designs and greater profitability. Customization due to the powerful application-programming interface extends the capabilities of the software using popular programming languages, providing user-defined scripts for automating common or complex tasks and custom design flows. The unique VPI-PDS tool features are the following: Link engineering solutions provide simple means for the cost-effective optical network configuration and offer a unified approach to control equipment libraries and engineering methodologies.
Transmission design solutions provide professional means for investigating and optimizing system technologies and evaluating novel component and subsystem designs in a system context. Component design solutions provide professional means for the development and optimization of photonic ICs, optoelectronic components, and fiber-based amplifiers and lasers.
Device simulation solution provides a versatile simulation framework for the analysis and optimization of integrated photonic waveguides and optical fibers. In process of development of such MWP REAs combined microwave and photonic circuits, there was a problem to use an optimum computer product for their modeling and design. The essence is that for the accurate solution of an issue for modeling of such complicated systems containing radio engineering and optical elements and devices, the specialties of their functioning in both ranges must be taken into consideration.
In this regard, more than 20 years ago, the conclusion was drawn that the optimal way for increasing the accuracy of MWP circuits taking into account the influence of their parasitic elements in MW band requires use of the high-power MW-CAD tool working at the symbolical level [ 19 ]. In result, the following outputs to optimally design the MWP-based REAs can be drawn out: The available OE-CAD platform is most applicable for analyzing complex devices and systems, rather than their individual components, which are presented in the form of parameterized or formal library models with a very limited number of parameters necessary for accurate development of MWP-based REAs.
In addition, calculating the key parameters of MWP circuits and links, such as large-signal transmission gain, noise figure, phase noise, intermodulation distortion, and intercept points is possible only by user-created complicated testbeds. From the developer's point of view, the OE-CAD platform lacks or is just starting to appear a large number of functions that are very useful for investigating the device under design see items 5—12 of Table 1.
The main disadvantage of the MW-CAD platform is the lack of models of active optoelectronic components such as semiconductor lasers, photodiodes, and electro-optic modulators. Our multiyear experience in CAD of MWP devices using AWRDE tool has shown that the most convenient way to introduce optoelectronic devices is to present them as a behavioral model in the form of a nonlinear physical equivalent circuit. In this circuit, the linear section is built on the basis of passive lumped or distributed components, and the nonlinear one uses sources current, voltage, noise, etc.
Having clarified the principal pros and cons of the two classes of software tools from the point of view of designing MWP-based REAs, in this section, we exemplify specifically the results of their comparative calculation for various devices and systems. To conduct accurately comparative modeling of MWP REAs, it is necessary to perform a reciprocal calibration for the models of optoelectronic and optical components.
In this regard, the behavioral models in the AWRDE are initially more accurate, since they are based on experimental data. That is, the calibration consists in fitting the parameters of the VPI-PDS models so as to obtain close basic characteristics in small- and large-signal modes. Below, we present and discuss the results of model calibration for key optoelectronic and optical components, based on which a set of subsequent simulations for basic REAs will be carried out in the next subsection.
On the other hand, there are more than 10 library models of SLS in VPI-PDS tool mainly based on linear or nonlinear rate equations differing in the way they are presented and in the set of input data.
Figure 2 exemplifies the result of small-signal frequency response mod. On the other hand, there are two library models of electroabsorption modulator EAM in VPI-PDS tool differing in the way they are presented and in the set of input data.
As follows from the figure, both graphs for this reciprocally calibrated optoelectronic element have a similar appearance. The most probable reason for this meaningful discrepancy is explained by the ideality of the VPI-PDS model, which does not take into account the influence in MW band of either the photodiode chip itself or the parasitic elements of its output circuit.
Specifically, in order to obtain a reasonable decrease in the frequency response at higher frequencies, a library model of a low-pass filter had to be introduced at the PD model output. Effect referred to parasitic circuit elements may be clearly explained by Figure 5. However, when constructing a realistic model of an OF, a whole set of additional effects should be taken into account, such as dispersion, reflection, scattering, nonlinearity, and ambient temperature, the influence of which can degrade the transmission characteristic.
On the other hand, there are as many as nine library models of multimode or single-mode OF in VPI-PDS tool differing in the way they are presented, which deteriorating factors and what set of input data are taken into account. Figure 6 exemplifies the result of small-signal phase response arg. As follows from the figure, both graphs for this reciprocally calibrated optical element have a similar appearance and the same slope. The purpose of this subsection is to generalize the results of the reciprocal calibration for optical and optoelectronic component models in such a way as to provide unified reference data on their parameters for further studies.
In this subsection, the subjects of the study are the specific microwave photonics MWP devices and apparatuses such as a delay circuit, oscillator, frequency converter, and fiber-wireless fronthaul of 5G mobile communication system. The research takes into account some key distortion sources of the MW signal under processing such as introduced noise and nonlinear distortion of active optoelectronic elements as well as chromatic dispersion of the optical fiber.
The parameters for the elements to be used are based on the data of Table 2. Fiber-optic delay circuit is one of the most feasible MWP units [ 22 ]. Figure 7 shows the block diagram of the single-channel optical delay circuit ODC under test including semiconductor laser that directly modulated by input MW signal, optical fiber, the length of which corresponds to the required delay time, and a photodetector, at the output of which a delayed MW signal is formed.
Figure 8 demonstrates the model for the simulation experiment evaluating some key quality parameters for ODC under test when transmitting continuous wave MW signals. As one can see, it contains the same ODC layout as in Figure 7 consisting of the calibrated in the previous subsection library model for single-mode laser, so-called galactic model for optical fiber also including delay element, and library models for pin-photodiode and electrical post-amplifier.
As follows from the figure, due to the broadband of the constituent elements, the delay does not change in such a wide frequency range of modulating frequencies almost 3 octaves. Its value coincides with high accuracy for both models and is close to the above delay in a standard single-mode fiber. In addition, Figure 11 demonstrates the large-signal amplitude characteristic of the ODC under test. The following outputs can be drawn from our study: The investigated optoelectronic delay circuit is a very simple device that, in contrast to the electronic analog, provides an extremely wide operating bandwidth and, thanks to the very short delay time in electro-optical and optical-electric converters and low losses in an optical fiber, an extremely wide delay range from units of nanoseconds to hundreds of microseconds.
Both computer tools under study provide approximately the same accuracy of calculations, which coincide with the actual value of the delay in the fiber [ 22 ]; however, the AWRDE model is simpler and more flexible.
Generally, it contains two requisite sections: optical one and electrical one. An important specificity of this model is in taking a phase noise of SLS into consideration.
Note that due to the absence in this software the library model of optical fiber OF that takes into account the delay in it, the OF model in the diagram has been replaced by library models of the optical attenuator and the delay element with identical parameters.
The following outputs can be drawn from our study: With small offsets from the MW carrier, the phase noise levels calculated using both software approximately coincide with each other and with experimental data [ 9 ].
With large offsets, the discrepancy between the AWRDE-calculated and experimental data does not exceed 2 dB [ 9 ], which indicates the more validity of its model. The efficiency of this device was confirmed by modeling in VPI-PDS and experimental research at input frequencies of 1 and 1.
Its appearance repeats the diagram of Figure 16 with the introduction of an electronic attenuator El , which serves to adjust the level of MW signals at the input of the SLS. Simulation details are reported in Ref. On the other hand, Figure 19 b shows a comparable result referred to conversion gain, however, a significant part of the mixing products either differs in level or is absent altogether.
The results of simulation using the proposed AWRDE models should be closely matched to the experimental ones because their parameters are constructed on the measured characteristics of laser and photodiode. The second one consists of the library model of polarization controller and the model of OF calibrated in Section 4. Finally, the third one includes the model of pin-PD calibrated in Section 4. A detailed description of the QAM transmitter and receiver models is given in Ref.
The model has the same arrangement as in Figure 21 excluding the transmitting part that contains the library model of quasi-optical tone generator imitating laser carrier, the library model of multiplexer that performs the operation of upconverting signal to the optical range, and a passive subcircuit representing frequency response of the EOM under test in S2P format.
Note that earlier we proposed and described in detail [ 13 ] a nonstructural nonlinear model for the EOM of the EAM type suitable for developers of local telecommunication systems based on RoF technology. However, here, its simplified model with the parameters calibrated in Section 4. AWRDE model of fiber-wireless fronthaul network. The study took into account the key distortion sources of the transmitted signal: noises of the laser, chirp of the modulator, and losses and chromatic dispersion of the fiber.
Table 3 lists the common reference data for the simulation experiment. In preparation for the simulation experiments, the modulation index of each device under study was optimized in such a way as to ensure the maximum output MW carrier-to-noise ratio while maintaining the low-signal mode at the modulating frequency. In addition, the dotted line indicates the standard limit of the EVM during transmission of the QAM signal, which is
Barbero Gonzalez, E. Alter Technology Group , Madrid Spain,. They offer some compelling advantages compared with their traditional RF counterparts when considered for use in space applications. Therefore, research and development of photonics technologies for space applications in areas of communications, sensing and signal processing has been a major theme for several years. The use of photonic technologies for space applications has risen the problem related to the ability of optoelectronic and optic components to withstand space environment as all optoelectronic and optic components come from terrestrial applications. Therefore, the development of photonic technologies for space applications has made the selection and acceptance test criteria of all optoelectronic and optic components that are part of the photonic system imperative. The paper presents a summary of the experience of Alter Technology Group on the mechanical, thermal, radiation and endurance testing on several photonics technologies.
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Wiley – IEEEMicrowave Photonics Devices And Applications0470848545, 9780470848548
By Mikhail E. In this chapter, with the goal to recover an optimal mean for computer-aided modeling and simulating a newer class of microwave-photonics-based radio electronic apparatuses, a number of comparative simulation experiments for the basic microwave band electronic devices and systems using well-known software tools referred to photonic design automation or upgraded electronic design automation platforms are carried out. As a result, it is shown that exploiting the software of upgraded electronic design automation platform provides significantly better accuracy of calculations for the devices and systems of this class. Modeling and Simulation in Engineering - Selected Problems.
Microwave Photonics: from Components to Applications and Systems
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Photonics is the physical science of light photon generation, detection, and manipulation through emission , transmission , modulation ,.. The term photonics developed as an outgrowth of the first practical semiconductor light emitters invented in the early s and optical fibers developed in the s. The word 'photonics' is derived from the Greek word "phos" meaning light which has genitive case "photos" and in compound words the root "photo-" is used ; it appeared in the late s to describe a research field whose goal was to use light to perform functions that traditionally fell within the typical domain of electronics, such as telecommunications, information processing, etc. Photonics as a field began with the invention of the laser in Other developments followed: the laser diode in the s, optical fibers for transmitting information, and the erbium-doped fiber amplifier. These inventions formed the basis for the telecommunications revolution of the late 20th century and provided the infrastructure for the Internet. Though coined earlier, the term photonics came into common use in the s as fiber-optic data transmission was adopted by telecommunications network operators.
PDF | Microwave photonics can be generally defined as the study of high-speed photonic devices extending from components and modules to systems with.
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